Treaty Negotiations, August 1874 to September 1874, Between Canada and First Nations of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.

The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 77


THIS treaty, is, so generally called, from having been made at the Qu'Appelle Lakes, in the North-West Territories. The Indians treated with, were a portion of the Cree and Saulteaux Tribes, and under its operations, about 75,000 square miles of territory were surrendered. This treaty, was the first step towards bringing the Indians of the Fertile Belt into closer relations with the Government of Canada, and was a much-needed one. In the year 1871, Major Butler was sent into the North-West Territories by the Government of Canada, to examine into and report, with regard to the state of affairs there. He reported, to Lieutenant-Governor Archibald, that "law and order are wholly unknown in the region of the Saskatchewan, in so much, as the country is without any executive organization, and destitute of any means of enforcing the law." Towards remedying this serious state of affairs, the Dominion placed the North-West Territories under the rule of the Lieutenant-Governor and Council of the Territories, the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba, being, ex officio, Governor of the Territories. This body, composed of representative men, possessed executive functions, and legislative powers. They entered upon their duties with zeal, and discharged them with efficiency. Amongst other measures, they passed a prohibitory liquor law, which subsequently was practically adopted by a Statute of the Dominion. They proposed the establishment of a Mounted Police Force, a suggestion which was given force to by the Dominion Cabinet, and they recommended, that, treaties should be made, with the Indians at Forts Qu'Appelle, Carlton 78 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. and Pitt, recommendations, which, were all, eventually, carried out. In the report of the Minister of the Interior, for the year 1875, he states " that it is due to the Council to record the fact, that the legislation and valuable suggestions, submitted to your Excellency, from time to time, through their official head, Governor Morris, aided the Government not a little in the good work of laying the foundations of law and order, in the North-West, in securing the good will of the Indian tribes, and in establishing the prestige of the Dominion Government, throughout that vast country." In accordance with these suggestions, the Government of the Dominion, decided, on effecting a treaty, with the plain Indians, Crees and Chippewas, who inhabit the country, of which, Fort Qu'Appelle, was a convenient centre, and entrusted the duty, to the Hon. Alexander Morris then Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the North-West Territories, the Hon. David Laird, then Minister of the Interior, and now Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories, and the Hon. W. J. Christie, a retired factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and a gentleman of large experience, among the Indian tribes.
In pursuance of this mission, these gentlemen left Fort Garry in August, 1874, and journeyed to Lake Qu'Appelle (the calling or echoing lake), where they met the assembled Indians, in September. The Commissioners, had an escort of militia, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Osborne Smith, C.M.G. This force marched to and from Qu'Appelle, acquitted themselves with signal propriety, and proved of essential service. Their return march was made in excellent time. The distance, three hundred and fifty miles having been accomplished in sixteen and a half days.
The Commissioners encountered great difficulties, arising, from the excessive demands of the Indians, and from the jealousies, existing between the two Nations, Crees and Chippawas, but by perseverance, firmness and tact, they succeeded in overcoming the obstacles, they had to encounter, and The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 79 eventually effected a treaty, whereby the Indian title was extinguished in a tract of country, embracing 75,000 square miles of territory. After long and ammated discussions the Indians, asked to be granted the same terms as were accorded to the Indians of Treaty Number Three, at the North-West Angle, hereinbefore mentioned. The Commissioners assented to their request and the treaty was signed accordingly.
On the return, of the Commissioners to Fort Ellice, they met there, the Chippawas of that vicinage, and made a supplementary treaty with them. These Indians were included in the boundaries of Treaty Number Two, but had not been treated with, owing to their distance from Manitoba House, where that treaty was made. In 1875, the Hon. W. J. Christie, and Mr. M. G. Dickieson, then of the Department of the Interior, and subsequently, Assistant Superintendent of Indian affairs, in the North-West Territories, were appointed to make the payments of annuities, to the Indians, embraced in the Treaty Number Four, and obtain the adhesion of other bands, which had not been present at Qu'Appelle, the previous year. They met, the Indians, at Qu'Appelle (where six Chiefs who had been absent, accepted the terms. of the treaty) and at Fort Pelly and at Shoal River, where two other Chiefs, with their bands, came into the treaty stipulations. A gratifying feature connected with the making of this, and the other, North-Western Treaties, has been the readiness, with which the Indians, who were absent, afterwards accepted the terms which had been settled for them, by those, who were able to attend. I close these observations, by annexing, the reports of Lieutenant-Governor Morris, to the Honorable the Secretary of State of Canada, of date 17th October, 1874, giving, an account, of the making of the treaties at Qu'Appelle and Fort Ellice, and an extract, from that of Messrs. Christie and Dickieson, dated 7th October, 1875, describing its further completion, and I also insert, accurate short-hand reports of the proceedings at Qu'Appelle and Fort Ellice, which, were made, at the time, 80 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. by Mr. Dickieson, who, was present, at the treaty, as secretary to the Commissioners. These will be found to be both interesting and instructive.
Sir,—I have the honor to inform you that in compliance with the request of the Government, I proceeded to Lake Qu'Appelle in company with the Hon. David Laird, in order to act with him and W. J. Christie, Esq., as Commissioners to negotiate a treaty with the tribes of Indians in that region.
Mr. Laird and I left Fort Garry on the 26th of August, and arrived at Lake Qu'Appelle on the 8th of September, Mr. Christie having gone in advance of us to Fort Pelly.
We were accompanied on arriving by the escort of militia under the command of Lieut. Col. W. Osborne Smith, who had preceded us, but whom we had overtaken.
The escort took up their encampment at a very desirable situation on the edge of the lake, the Indians being encamped at some distance.
The Commissioners were kindly provided with apartments by W. J. McLean, Esq., the officer in charge of the Hudson Bay Company's Post.
After our arrival, the Commissioners caused the Indians to be summoned, to meet them, in a marquee tent adjoining the encampment of the militia.
The Crees came headed by their principal Chief "Loud Voice," and a number of Saulteaux followed, without their Chief, Coté. The Commissioners, having decided that it was desirable that there should be only one speaker on behalf of the Commissioners, requested me owing to my previous experience with the Indian tribes and my official position as Lieutenant- Governor of the North-West Territories, to undertake the duty, which I agreed to do. Accordingly, I told the Indians the object of our coming and invited them to present to us their Chiefs and headmen. " Loud Voice " stated that they were not yet ready and asked for a delay till next day, to which we assented.
0n the 9th, four Indian soldiers were sent to the Commissioners to ask for two days delay, but we replied that when they met us in conference they could prefer any reasonable request, but that we expected them to meet us as agreed on the previous day, and further that the Saulteaux had not conducted themselves with proper respect to the Commissioners, as representatives of the Crown, as their principal Chief Coté had not met us. Eventually, both the Crees and the Saulteaux met us, with their Chiefs, when I addressed them. They asked time to deliberate and we appointed the 11th at ten o'clock for the next conference.
The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 81
The Crees then left the tent suddenly, under constraint of the Indian soldiers, who compelled the Chiefs to go.
On the 11th we sent a bugler round to summon the Indians to the appointed conference, but they did not come.
Instead the Saulteaux sent word that they could not meet us except in their own soldiers tent, distant about a mile from the militia encampment, but we refused to do so.
The Crees were ready to proceed to the marquee, but were prevented by the Saulteaux, a section of whom displayed a turbulent disposition and were numerically the strongest party. We sent our interpreter Charles Pratt, a Cree Indian, who was educated at St. John's College here, and who is a catechist of the Church of England, to tell the Indians that they must meet us as agreed upon.
In consequence, about four o'clock in the afternoon, the Crees led by " Loud Voice," came to the conference, but the Saulteaux kept away, though a number were sent to hear and report. On behalf of the Commissioners, I then explained to the Crees the object of our mission and made our proposals for a treaty, but as they were not ready to reply, we asked them to return to their tents and meet us next day.
On the 12th the Crees and Saulteaux sent four men from the soldiers tent or council, which they had organized, to ask that the encampment of the militia and the conference tents should be removed half way, towards their encampment.
In consequence, we requested Lieut.-Col. Smith to proceed to the Indian encampment and ascertain the meaning of this demand, authorizing him, if necessary, to arrange for the pitching of the conference tent nearer the Indians, if that would give them any satisfaction.
He reported, on his return, that the Indians wished the militia to encamp with them, and that they objected to meet us anywhere on the reserve of the Hudson Bay Company, as they said they could not speak freely there.
He refused to remove the militia camp, as it was a very desirable place where it had been placed, but with the assent of the Indians selected a spot adjoining the reserve and at a suitable distance from the Indian tents, on which the conference tent was to be daily erected, but to be removed after the conferences closed.
We then summoned the Indians to meet us at one o'clock, which they did at the appointed place.
After the formal hand shaking, which ceremony they repeat at the beginning and close of every interview, the Commissioners submitted their terms for a treaty, which were in effect similar to those granted at the North-West Angle, except that the money present offered was eight dollars per head, instead of twelve dollars as there.
The Indians declined, however, to talk about these proposals, as they said there was something in the way. They objected to the reserve having been surveyed for the Hudson Bay Company, without their first having been 82 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. consulted, and claimed that the ÂŁ300,000 paid to the Company should be paid to them. They also objected to the Company's trading in the Territory, except only at their posts. The Commissioners refused to comply with their demands, and explained to them how the Company had become entitled to the reserve in question, and the nature of the arrangement, that had resulted in the payment by the Government of Canada of the ÂŁ300,000.
The conference adjourned to Monday the 14th, on which day the Commissioners again met them, but the Cree Chief "Loud Voice" asked for another day to consider the matter, and " CotĂ© " or "Meemay " the Saulteaux Chief, from Fort Pelly, asked to be treated with, at his own place. They demanded, that the Company should only be allowed to trade at their own posts, and not to send out traders into the Territory—which was of course refused, it being explained to them that all Her Majesty's subjects had equal right of trading. The Commissioners then agreed to grant a final delay of another day, for further consideration. Up to this period the position was very unsatisfactory.
The Crees were from the first ready to treat, as were the Saulteaux from Fort Pelly, but the Saulteaux of the Qu'Appelle District were not disposed to do so and attempted to coerce the other Indians.
They kept the Chiefs "Loud Voice" and "Coté" under close surveillance, they being either confined to their tents or else watched by " soldiers," and threatened if they should make any overtures to us.
The Saulteaux cut down the tent over the head of one of the Cree Chiefs and conducted themselves in such a manner, that " Loud Voice " applied to the Commissioners for protection, and the Crees purchased knives and armed themselves.
The Saulteaux, one day went the length of placing six "soldiers," armed with rifles and revolvers, in the conference tent to intimidate the other Indians, a step which was promptly counteracted by Lieut.-Col. Smith, calling in six of the militiamen who were stationed in the tent. In this connection. I must take the opportunity of stating that the results proved the wisdom of the course taken by the Commissioners in obtaining the escort of the militia, as their presence exerted great moral influence, and I am persuaded, prevented the jealousies and ancient feud between the Crees and Saulteaux culminating in acts of violence.
The conduct of the whole force was excellent and, whether on the march or in the encampment ground, they conducted themselves in a most creditable manner.
Resuming, however, my narrative, on the 15th of September, the Commissioners again met the Indians at eleven o'clock in the forenoon.
The Crees had, in the interval, decided to treat with us independently, and the Saulteaux, finding this, came to a similar conclusion. After a protracted interview, the Indians asked to be granted the same terms as were given at the North-West Angle. The Commissioners took time to consider and adjourned the conference until three o'clock.
The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 83
In the interval, the Commissioners, being persuaded that a treaty could not otherwise be made, determined on acceding to the request of the Indians.
The Indians, having again met the Commissioners in the afternoon, presented their Chiefs to them, when they asked to be informed what the terms granted at the North-West Angle were. These were fully and carefully explained to them, but after a request that all the Indians owed to the Hudson Bay Company should be wiped out and a refusal of the Commissioners to entertain their demands, they then asked that they should be paid fifteen dollars per annum per head, which was refused, and they were informed that the proposals of the Commissioners were final, and could not be changed.
The Chiefs then agreed to accept the terms offered and to sign the treaty, having first asked that the Half-breeds should be allowed to hunt, and having been assured that the population in the North-West would be treated fairly and justly, the treaty was signed by the Commissioners and the Chiefs, having been first fully explained to them by the interpreter.
Arrangements were then made to commence the payments and distribution of the. presents the next day, a duty which was discharged by Mr. Christie and Mr. Dickieson, Private Secretary of the Hon. Mr. Laird.
I forward you to form an appendix to this despatch, a report marked "A" and " B " extended from notes taken in short hand, by Mr. Dickieson, of the various conferences and of the utterances of the Commissioners and the Indians.
It is obvious that such a record will prove valuable, as it enables any misunderstanding on the part of the Indians, as to what was said at the conference, to be corrected, and it, moreover, will enable the council better to appreciate the character of the difficulties that have to be encountered in negotiating with the Indians.
On the 11th I left for Fort Ellice, in company with Mr. Laird, Mr. Christie and Mr. Dickieson remaining to complete the payments, which were satisfactorily disposed of.
Before leaving, the Chiefs "Loud Voice " and Cote called on us to tender their good wishes, and to assure us that they would teach their people to respect the treaty.
The Commissioners received every assistance in their power from Mr. McDonald of Fort Ellice, in charge of the Hudson Bay Company District of Swan River, and from Mr. McLean, in charge of the Qu'Appelle Post, —I also add, that the Half-breed population were I believe generally desirous of seeing the treaty concluded and used the influence of their connection with the Indians in its favor.
I forward in another despatch a copy of an address I received from the Metis, or Half-breeds, together with my reply thereto.
The treaty was taken charge of by the Hon. Mr. Laird, and will be by him placed on record in his Department and submitted to council for approval.
84 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
I enclose herewith, however, a printed copy of it, marked " C," to accompany this despatch.
The supplementary treaty made at Fort Ellice will form the subject of another despatch.
Trusting that the efforts of the Commissioners to secure a satisfactory understanding with the Western Indians will result in benefit to the race, advantage to the Dominion, and meet the approval of the Privy Council,
I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, ALEXANDER MORRIS, Lieut.-Gov. N. W. T.
SIR,—Referring to my despatch of the 17th inst., (No. 211) I have the honor to report that Mr. Laird and I arrived at Fort Ellice from Qu'Appelle Lakes, on Saturday the 19th of September.
On Monday, we met the band of Saulteaux Indians, who make their headquarters at Fort Ellice, and who had remained there, instead of going to Qu'Appelle at our request.
This band have been in the habit of migrating between the region covered by the Second Treaty and that comprehended in the Fourth, but had not been treated with.
We proposed to them to give their adhesion to the Qu'Appelle Treaty and surrender their claim to lands, wherever situated, in the North-West Territories, on being given a reserve and being granted the terms on which the treaty in question was made. We explained fully these terms and asked the Indians to present to us their Chief and headmen. As some of the band were absent, whom the Indians desired to be recognized as headmen, only the Chief and one headman were presented. These, on behalf of the Indians accepted the terms and thanked the Queen and the Commissioners for their care of the Indian people. A supplement to the treaty was then submitted and fully explained to them, by our acting interpreter, Joseph Robillard, after which it was signed by Mr. Laird and myself, and by the Chief and  head man.
The original of the supplementary treaty will be submitted for approval by Mr. Laird, but I annex a printed Copy of it, as an appendix to this despatch. 
I also annex, notes of the conference with these Indians, extended from the short hand report taken of the proceedings by Mr. Dickieson, Private Secretary to the Hon. Mr. Laird.
In the afternoon, Mr. Christie and Mr. Dickieson arrived from Lake The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 85 Qu'Appelle, and shortly afterwards proceeded to make the payments to the Indians, under the treaty.
It was satisfactory to have this band dealt with, as they asserted claims in the region covered by the Manitoba Post Treaty, but had not been represented at the time it was made.
On the 22nd of September the Commissioners left Fort Ellice and arrived at Fort Garry on the afternoon of the 26th of that month, having been absent a little over a month.
I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient Servant, ALEXANDER MORRIS, Lieut.-Gov. N. W. T.
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA, 7th October, 1875.
SIR,—We have now the honor to submit, for your information, our final report in connection with our missions to the Indians included in Treaty No. 4.
As former reports have made you fully acquainted with the arrangements that had been entered into previous to our departure from this place, any further reference to them is unnecessary.
Having left Winnipeg on the 19th August, we arrived at Fort Ellice on the 24th, the day appointed for the meeting the Indians of that place. The same evening we had an interview with, and fully explained the terms and conditions of the treaty to some of the Indians who were net present when the treaty was concluded last year. Next morning, by appointment, we met all the Indians and explained to them the object of our mission, and, after considerable discussion, made arrangements to commence paying the annuities next day. This, however, was prevented by heavy rains, which continued more or less to retard our operations on the two following days, the 27th and 28th, but everything was satisfactorily concluded with this band on the evening of the latter day, and on the following morning we started for the Qu'Appelle Lakes, accompanied by an escort of fifteen men of the Mounted Police Force, under the command of Sub-Inspector McIllree, which had arrived at Fort Ellice on the evening of the 26th, and reached our destination on the forenoon of the 2nd September.
As you are aware, we had heard before leaving Winnipeg, that the number of Indians assembled at the Qu'Appelle Lakes would be very large, but we did not anticipate that so many as we found (nearly five hundred lodges) would be congregated.
We at once saw that the funds at our disposal to pay the annuities and 86 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. gratuities would be inadequate, and availed ourselves of the opportunity presented by the return of Major Irvine to Winnipeg, to forward a telegram on the 5th September, requesting a further amount of six thousand dollars. to be placed to our credit; and we may state here, though out of the order of time, as we found after the first two days payments that we had still underestimated the number of Indians present, we transmitted a telegram to Winnipeg by special messenger, on the 9th September, for a further credit of fifteen thousand dollars.
On the 3rd September we met the Indians and explained the object of our mission, and, for the benefit of those who were absent last year. the terms and conditions of the treaty, and stated that we were now ready to fulfil so many of the obligations therein contained as the Gpvernment were bound to execute this year. The Indians declined saying anything on this occasion, but wished to meet and confer with us the following day, as they had something they wished to speak about. They accordingly met us on the 4th, and made several demands, one of which was that the annuities be increased to twelve dollars per head. We replied that the treaty concluded last year was a covenant between them and the Government, and it was impossible to comply with their demands; that all we had to do was to carry out the terms of the treaty in so far as the obligations of the same required. An idea seemed prevalent among the Indians who were absent last year that no treaty had been concluded then; that all which had been done at that time was merely preliminary to the making of the treaty in reality, which they thought was to be performed this year. The prevalence of this opinion amongst them operated very prejudicially to the furthering of our business, and we saw that until this was done away with it would be impossible to do anything towards accomplishing the real object of our mission. After a great deal of talking on their part, and explanation on ours, the meeting adjourned until Monday morning, as it was necessary that provisions should be issued to the different bands that evening for the following day.
On Monday (the 6th) we again met the Indians, and as they evidently wished to have another day's talking to urge the same demands they had made on Saturday, we assured them all further discussion on the subject was useless; that if they declined to accept the terms of the treaty we must return and report to the Government that they had broken the promise made last year. They then asked that we should report to the Government what they had demanded. This we agreed to do. After some further explanation to those Chiefs who had not signed the treaty, the payment of the annuities and gratuities was commenced and continued by Messrs. Dickieson and Forsyth on this and the three following days until completed, during which time Mr. Christie conferred with the Chiefs as to the locality of their reserves.
Six Chiefs who had not been present last year when the treaty was concluded, agreed to accept the terms of the same, and signed their adhesion The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 87 previous to being paid. The instruments thus signed by them are transmitted herewith. "
The suits of clothes, flags, medals and copies of the treaty were given to the Chiefs and headmen as they were paid, and on the 10th the ammunition and twine were distributed, also provisions to each band for the return journey to their hunting grounds. * * * * * *
We have the honor to be, Sir, . Your obedient servants, W. J. CHRISTIE, Indian Commissioner. M. G. DICKIESON.
Report of the proceedings at the Conference between the Hon. Alexander Morris, Lieut.-Governor of the North-West Territories, the Hon. David Laird, Minister of the Interior, and W. J. Christie, Esq, the Commissioners appointed by Order in Council to treat with the Indians inhabiting the country described in the said Order in Council, the first conference having been held at Qu'Appelle, September 8th, 1874 :
At four o'clock the Commissioners entered the marquee erected for the accommodation of themselves, and the Indians, who in in a short time arrived, shook hands with the Commissioners, the officers of the guard, and other gentlemen who were in the tent, and took their seats.
It having been noticed that Cote, "the Pigeon" a leading Chief of the Saulteaux tribe, had not arrived but that several of his band were present and claimed that they had been sent to represent him, His Honor the Lieut.-Governor instructed the (acting) interpreter, William Daniel, to enquire why their Chief had not come to meet the Commissioners, the white chiefs ?
To this question they answered, that he had given no reason.
His Honor, through the interpreter, told them that the 88 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. Queen had sent him and the other Commissioners to see their Chief and their nation, and that the least a loyal subject could do would be to meet the messengers of the Queen.
His Honor then addressed the Crees as follows: "The Commissioners having agreed that as Lieut.-Governor he should speak to them, as we are sent here by the Queen, by the Great Mother—the Queen has chosen me to be one of her Councillors, and has sent me here to represent her and has made me Governor of all her Territories in the N orth-West. She has sent another of her Councillors who has come all the way from Ottawa. She has also sent with us Mr. Christie, whom you all know, who has lived for a long time in this country, but who had gone away from it to live in another part of the Dominion of Canada. The Queen loves her Red children; she has always been friends with them ; she knows that it is hard for them to live, and she has always tried to help them in the other parts of the Dominion. Last year she sent me to see her children at the Lake of the Woods. I took her children there by the hand, and the white man and the red man made friends for ever. We have come here with a message from the Queen and want to tell you all her mind. We want to speak to you about the land and what the Queen is willing to do for you, but before we tell you, we want you to tell us, who your Chiefs and headmen are who will speak for you, while we Speak for the Queen, and we want to know what bands of Crees are here and who will speak for them. We wish to know if. the Crees are ready to speak with us now ?"
KA-KU-SHI-WAY, THE LOUD VOICE,—Said in reply: "I do not wish to tell a lie. I cannot say who will speak for us ; it will only be known after consultation."
HIS HONOR THE LIEUT.-GOV.—" By to-morrow you will probably have chosen whom you will have to speak for you and the Commissioners will be glad to meet you after you have chosen your spokesmen, and will meet you at ten o'clock. We want you to tell us openly what you want and we will speak to The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 89 you for the Queen in the same way. The Colonel will send a man round to sound a bugle at ten o'clock to let you know."
To the Saulteaux His Honor said: "We are here with a message from the Great Mother and want you to open my mouth so that I can tell you what I have to say. If you and your Chiefs will meet together in council and talk it over we will be glad to meet you, if you bring your Chief to-morrow. You must also choose your speakers who will come with your Chief and speak for you."
LOUD VOICE—" I will tell the message that is given me to tell. I have one thing to say, the first word that came to them was for the Saulteaux tribe to choose a place to pitch their tents."
HIS HONOR—"This place was chosen because it is a good place for my men—for the soldiers—there is plenty of water and grass, and I will meet you here to-morrow. That is all at present."
After the departure of the main body of Cree Indians, Saulteaux, from the Cypress Hills, entered the tent saying that they had no Chief, and did not want to go with the main body of the nation, that they had plenty of friends on the plains.
His Honor said they would hear the Queen's message with the rest of the Indians.
September 9, 1874.
The Indians, both Crees, Saulteaux and their Chiefs having arrived, His Honor Lieut.-Governor Morris said: "I am glad to see so many of the Queen's red children here this morning, I told those I saw yesterday that I was one of the Queen's councillors, and had another councillor with me from Ottawa and that the Queen had sent Mr. Christie who used to live amongst you to help us. Yesterday the Cree nation with their Chief were here, the Saulteaux did not come to meet the 90 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. Queen's servants, their Chief was not here. I thought that the Saulteaux could not have understood that the Queen had sent her servants to see them, or they would have come to meet them. If Loud Voice or any other Chief came down to Fort Garry to see me, and I sent one of my servants to meet them instead of shaking hands with them, would they be pleased? I wanted you to meet me here to-day because I wanted to speak to you before the Great Spirit and before the world. I want both Crees and Saulteaux to know what I say. I told those who were here yesterday that we had a message from the Queen to them. Last year I made a treaty with the Indians, 4,000 in number, at the Lake of the Woods. To-day the Queen sends us here. I told you yesterday that she loves her red children, and they have always respected her and obeyed her laws. I asked you yesterday, and ask you now, to tell me who would speak for you, and how many bands of each nation are represented here. I have heard that you are not ready to speak to me yet but do not know it, and I want you to say anything you have to say before all, and I will speak in the same way. What I have to talk about concerns you, your children and their children, who are yet unborn, and you must think well over it, as the Queen has thought well over it. What I want, is for you to take the Queen's hand, through mine, and shake hands with her for ever, and now I want, before I say any more, to hear from the Chiefs if they are ready with their men to speak for them, and if they are not ready if they will be ready to-morrow."
CAN-A-HAH-CHA-PEW, THE MAN OF THE BOW,—"We are not ready yet, we have not gathered together yet. That is all I have to say."
PEICHETO'S SON O-TA-HA-O-MAN, THE GAMBLER—" My dear friends, do you want me to speak for you to these great men ?" (the Indians signified their consent.) "I heard you were to come here, that was the reason that all the camps were collected together, I heard before-hand too where the camp was to be The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 91 placed, but I tell you that I am not ready yet. Every day there are other Indians coming and we are not all together. Where I was told to pitch my tent that is where I expected to see the great men in the camp. That is all."
HIS HONOR— "With regard to the camp, the Queen sent one of her chief men of our soldiers with us, and he selected the best place for the men, the place where we are now, and I think it is a good place. At first he thought to have encamped across the river, but he thought this was better ground and chose it. I think it just as well that our tents should be at a little distance from your braves and your camp. 1 want to say to the Indian children of the Queen that if their people are coming in, that our men have walked a long way here, and must go back again to Fort Garry, and I have other things to do. Mr. Laird has to go back again to look after other things for the Queen at Ottawa. I want to ask the Chiefs when they will be ready to meet us to-morrow."
PEI-CHE-TO'S SON—" I have said before, we are not ready."
HIS HONOR—" Let them send me word through their Chiefs when they are ready."
September 11, 1874.
The Crees and their Chiefs met the Commissioners. The Saulteaux Chief was not present, though most of the tribe were present.
An Indian, "the Crow," advised the assembled Crees, the Saulteaux not having arrived, to listen attentively to what words he said.
His Honor the Lieut.-Governor then arose and said : "I am glad to meet you here to-day. We have waited long and began to wonder whether the Queen's red children were not coming to meet her messengers. All the ground here is the Queen's and you are free to speak your mind fully. We want you to 92 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. speak to me face to face. I am ready now with my friends here to give you the Queen's message. Are your ears open to hear? Have you chosen your speakers ?"
THE LOUD VOICE—"There is no one to answer."
HIS HONOR—" You have had time enough to select your men to answer and I will give you the Queen's message. The Queen knows that you are poor ; the Queen knows that it is hard to find food for yourselves and children; she knows that the winters are cold, and your children are often hungry ; she has always cared for her red children as much as for her white. Out of her generous heart and liberal hand she wants to do something for you, so that when the buffalo get scarcer, and they are scarce enough now, you may be able to do something for yourselves."
THE LOUD VOICE (to the Indians)—"I wonder very much at your conduct. You understand what is said and you understand what is right and good. You ought to listen to that and answer it, every one of you. What is bad you cannot answer."
HIS HONOR—" What the Queen and her Councillors would like is this, she would like you to learn something of the cunning of the white man. When fish are scarce and the buffalo are not plentiful she would like to help you to put something in the land ; she would like that you should have some money every year to buy things that you need. If any of you would settle down on the land, she would give you cattle to help you; she would like you to have some seed to plant. She would like to give you every year, for twenty years, some powder, shot, and twine to make nets of. I see you here before me to-day. I will pass away and you will pass away. I will go where my fathers have gone and you also, but after me and after you will come our children. The Queen cares for you and for your children, and she cares for the children that are yet to be born. She would like to take you by the hand and do as I did for her at the Lake of the Woods last year. We promised them and we are ready to promise now to give five dollars to every man, The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 93   woman and child, as long as the sun shines and water flows. We are ready to promise to give $1,000 every year, for twenty years, to buy powder and shot and twine, by the end of which time I hope you will have your little farms. If you will settle down we would lay off land for you, a square mile for every family of five. Whenever you go to a Reserve, the Queen will be ready to give you a school and schoolmaster, and the Government will try to prevent fire-water from being sent among you. If you shake hands with us and make a treaty, we are ready to make a present at the end of the treaty, of eight dollars for every man, woman and child in your nations. We are ready also to give calico, clothing and other presents. We are ready to give every recognized Chief, a present of twenty-five dollars, a medal, and a suit of clothing. We are also ready to give the Chief's soldiers, not exceeding four in each band, a present of ten dollars, and next year and every year after, each chief will be paid twenty-five dollars, and his chief soldiers not exceeding four in each band, will receive ten dollars. Now I think that you see that that the Queen loves her red children, that she wants to do you good, and you ought to show that you think so. I cannot believe that you will be the first Indians, the Queen's subjects, who will not take her by the hand. The Queen sent one of her councillors from Ottawa, and me, her Governor, to tell you her mind. I have opened my hands and heart to you. It is for you to think of the future of those who are with you now, of those who are coming after you, and may the Great Spirit guide you to do what is right. I have only one word more to say. The last time I saw you I was not allowed to say all I wanted to say until you went away. What I wanted to say is this, I have put before you our message, I want you to go back to your tents and think over what I have said and come and meet me to-morrow. Recollect that we cannot stay very long here. I have said all."
94 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
September 12, 1874.
In the morning four Indians, two Crees and two Saulteaux, waited on the Commissioners and asked that they should meet the Indians half way, and off the Company's reserve, and that the soldiers should remove their camps beside the Indian encampment, that they would meet the Commissioners then and confer with them ; that there was something in the way of their speaking openly where the marquee had been pitched. Their request was complied with as regarded the place of meeting only, and the spot for the conference selected by Col. Smith and the Indians.
The meeting was opened by the Lieut.-Governor, who said, "Crees and Saulteaux,—I have asked you to meet us here today. We have been asking you for many days to meet us and this is the first time you have all met us. If it was not my duty and if the Queen did not wish it, I would not have taken so much trouble to speak to you. We are sent a long way to give you her message. Yesterday I told the Crees her message, and I know that the Saulteaux know what it was, but that there may be no mistake, I will tell it to you again and I will tell you more. When I have given my message understand that you will have to answer it, as I and my friends will have to leave you. You are the subjects of the Queen, you are her children, and you are only a little band to all her other children. She has children all over the world, and she does right with them all. She cares as much for you as she cares for her white children, and the proof of it is that wherever her name is spoken her people whether they be red or white, love her name and are ready to die for it, because she is always just and true. What she promises never changes. She knows the condition of her people here ; you are not her only red children ; where I come from, in Ontario and in Quebec, she has many red children, and away beyond the mountains she has other red children, and she The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 95 wants to care for them all. Last year I was among the Saulteaux ; we have the Saulteaux where I came from. They were my friends. I was the son of a white Chief who had a high place among them, they told him they would do his work, they called him Shekeisheik. I learned from him to love the red man, and it was a pleasant duty and good to my heart when the Queen told me to come among her Saulteaux children and I expect the Crees and the Saulteaux to take my hand as they did last year. In our hands they feel the Queen's, and if they take them the hands of the white and red man will never unclasp. In other lands the white and red man are not such friends as we have always been, and why? Because the Queen always keeps her word, always protects her red men. She learned last winter that bad men from the United States had come into her country and had killed some of her red children, What did she say? This must not be, I will send my men and will not suffer these bad men to hurt my red children, their lives are very dear to me. And now I will tell you our message. The Queen knows that her red children often find it hard to live. She knows that her red children, their wives and children, are often hungry, and that the buffalo will not last for ever and she desires to do something for them. More than a hundred years ago, the Queen's father said to the red men living in Quebec and Ontario, I will give you land and cattle and set apart Reserves for you, and will teach you. What has been the result? There the red men are happy; instead of getting fewer in number by sickness they are growing in number ; their children have plenty. The Queen wishes you to enjoy the same blessings, and so I am here to tell you all the Queen's mind, but recollect this, the Queen's High Councillor here from Ottawa, and I, her Governor, are not traders ; we do not come here in the spirit of traders ; we come here to tell you openly, without hiding anything, just what the Queen will do for you, just what she thinks is good for you, and I want you to look me in the face, eye to eye, and open your hearts to me 96 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. as children would to a father, as children ought to do to a father, and as you ought to the servants of the great mother of us all. I told my friends yesterday that things changed here, that we are here to-day and that in a few years it may be we will not be here, but after us will come our children. The Queen thinks of the children yet unborn. I know that there are some red men as well as white men who think only of today and never think of to-morrow. The Queen has to think of what will come long after to-day. Therefore, the promises we have to make to you are not for to-day only but for to-morrow, not only for you but for your children born and unborn, and the promises we make will be carried out as long as the sun shines above and the water flows in the ocean. When you are ready to plant seed the Queen's men will lay off Reserves so as to give a square mile to every family of five persons, and on commencing to farm the Queen will give to every family cultivating the soil two hoes, one spade, one scythe for cutting the grain, one axe and plough, enough of seed wheat, barley, oats and potatoes to plant the land they get ready. The Queen wishes her red children to learn the cunning of the white man and when they are ready for it she will send schoolmasters on every Reserve and pay them. We have come through the country for many days and we have seen hills and but little wood and in many places little water, and it may be a long time before there are many white men settled upon this land, and you will have the right of hunting and fishing just as you have now until the land is actually taken up. (His Honor repeated the offers which had been given to the Saulteaux on the previous day.) I think I have told you all that the Queen is willing to do for you. It ought to show you that she has thought more about you than you have about her. I will be glad now to have those whom you have selected speak for you and I again ask you to keep nothing back. This is the first time you have had white chiefs, officers of the Queen, so high in her Councils, so trusted by her among you. We have no The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 97 object but your good at heart, and therefore we ask you to speak out to us, to open your minds to us, and believe that we are your true and best friends, who will never advise you badly, who will never whisper bad words in your ears, who only care for your good and that of your children. I have told you the truth, the whole truth, and now we expect to hear from the two nations and any other tribe who may be represented here. My friend Mr. Laird reminds me that he has come from an Island in the far off sea, that he has go back to Ottawa and then go to his own home, that he was asked specially to help me in speaking to you and advising me. He is obliged to go away as I am, and therefore we want you to answer us."
COTE, or MEE-MAY (Saulteaux Chief)—" I cannot say anything to you. It is that man (pointing to Loud Voice) will speak."
LOUD VOICE (Cree Chief)—" If I could speak, if I could manage to utter my feelings there is reason why I should answer you back ; but there is something in my way, and that is all I can tell you. This man (the Gambler) will tell you.
O-TA-KA-O-NAN, OR THE GAMBLER.—" This morning I saw the chief of the soldiers, who asked me what is in your way that you cannot come and meet the Queen's messengers ; then I told him what was in the way. And now that I am come in, what do I see ? You were rather slow in giving your hand. You said that the Queen spoke through you and spoke very plainly, but I cannot speak about what you said at present ; the thing that is in the way that is what I am working at."
LIEUT.-Gov. MORRIS—" We have come here for the purpose of knowing what is in your mind. I held out my hand but you did not do as your nation did at the Angle. When I arrived there the Chief and his men came and gave me the pipe of peace and paid me every honor. Why ? Because I was the servant of the Queen. I was not slow in offering my hand, I gave it freely and from my heart, and whenever we found I could please you by coming here, we sent the chief of 98 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. the soldiers to select a suitable place to meet you. You tell me there is something in your mind. If there is anything standing between us, how can we take it away or answer you unless we know what it is ?"
THE GAMBLER—" I told the soldier master you did not set your camp in order, you came and staid beyond over there, that is the reason I did not run in over there. Now when you have come here, you see sitting out there a mixture of Half- breeds, Crees, Saulteaux and Stonies, all are one, and you were slow in taking the hand of a Half-breed. All these things are many things that are in my way. I cannot speak about them."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—Why are you here to-day? because we asked you to come, because it was a good place to speak with them the reason we wished to see them. I am now quite willing to tell you all about Fort Pelly. The Queen heard that Americans had come into the country and were treating her Indian children badly. I myself sent her word that twenty- five of her Indian children, men, women and children, had been shot down by the American traders, then she resolved to protect her red children, for that reason she has determined to have a body of men on horses as policemen to keep all bad people, white or red, in order. She will not allow her red children to be made drunk and shot down again as some of them were a few months ago. Now you ought to be glad that you have a Queen who takes such an interest in you. What are they doing now up at Fort Pelly? The men must have some place to live in this winter, they cannot live out of doors, and some men have gone to Fort Pelly to build houses for them, and the Queen expects that you will do all you can to help them because they are your friends. There was a treaty before and Indians are paid under it, but we were told as we passed Fort Ellice that there were a few Indians there who were not included in that treaty, and had never been paid, and they agreed to meet us when we go back. I do not quite understand another point. We have here Crees, Saulteaux, The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 99 Assiniboines and other Indians, they are all one, and we have another people, the Half-breeds, they are of your blood and my blood. The Queen cares for them, one of them is here an officer with a Queen's coat on his back. At the Lake of the Woods last winter every Half-Breed who was there with me was helping me, and I was proud of it, and glad to take the word back to the Queen, and her servants, and you may rest easy, you may leave the Half-breeds in the hands of the Queen who will deal generously and justly with them. There was a Half-breed came forward to the table. He was only one of many here. I simply wanted to know whether he was authorized by you to take any part in the Council, as it is the Indians alone we are here to meet. He told me you wanted him here as a witness. We have plenty of witnesses here, but when I heard that, I welcomed him as I had done you, and shook hands with him, and he ought to have told you that. I have given our answer and I have always found this that it is good for men to try to understand each other, and to speak openly, if they do that and both are earnest, if their hearts are pure, they will and can understand each other."
THE GAMBLER——" I have understood plainly before what he (the Hudson Bay Company) told me about the Queen. This country that he (H. B. Co.) bought from the Indians let him complete that. It is that which is in the way. I cannot manage to speak upon anything else, when the land was staked off it was all the Company's work. That is the reason I cannot speak of other things'."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" We don't understand what you mean. Will you explain?
THE GAMBLER—"I know what I have to tell you. Who surveyed this land? Was it done by the Company? This is the reason I speak of the Company, why are you staying in the Company's house?"
LIEUT.-GOVERNOR MORRIS—" The Company have a right to have certain lands granted them by the Queen, who will do 100 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. what is fair and just for the Company, for the Indians, for the Half-breeds, and for the whites. She will make no distinction. Whatever she promises she will carry out. The Company are are nothing to her except that they are carrying on trade in this country, and that they are subjects to her just as you are. You ask then why I went to the Company's house? I came here not at my own pleasure. I am not so strong as you are. I never slept in a tent in my life before and was only too glad to find a home to go to."
THE GAMBLER—" I understand now. And now this Company man. This is the Company man (pointing to Mr. McDonald). This is the thing I cannot speak of. The Cree does not know, the Saulteaux does not know. It was never known when this was surveyed, neither by the Cree nor the Saulteaux."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"The Company are trading in this country and they require to have places to carry out their trade. If the Queen gives them land to hold under her she has a perfect right to do it, just as she will have a perfect right to lay off lands for you if you agree to settle on them. I am sorry for you; I am afraid you have been listening to bad voices who have not the interests of the Indians at heart. If because of these things you will not speak to us we will go away with hearts sorry for you and for your children, who thus throw back in our faces the hand of the Queen that she has held out to you."
THE GAMBLER—" It is very plain who speaks; the Crees are not speaking, and the Saulteaux is speaking, if the Queen's men came here to survey the land. I am telling you plainly. I cannot speak any other thing till this is cleared up. Look at these children that are sitting around here and also at the tents, who are just the image of my kindness. There are different kinds of grass growing here that is just like those sitting around here. There is no difference. Even from the American land they are here, but we love them all the same, and when the white skin comes here from far away I love him all the The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 101 same. I am telling you what our love and kindness is. This is what I did when the white man came, but when he came back he paid no regard to me how he carried on."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I did not know till I came here that any survey had been made because I had nothing to do with it; but my friend, one of the Queen's Councillors, tells me it was done by the authority of the Queen."
THE GAMBLER—" I want to tell you the right story. I waited very much for the Queen's messenger when I saw what the Company did. Perhaps he may know why he did so. Perhaps if I were to ask him now he would say. That is what  I would think. This is the reason. I am so pleased at what  I see here I cannot manage to speak because of the Company.
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"We cannot see why you cannot speak to the Queen's messengers because of the Company. The Company is no greater in her sight than one of those little children is in yours, and whatever she promises, either to the Company  or the little child, she will do. The Company ought not to be a wall between you and us; you will make a mistake if you send us away with a wall between us, when there should be none."
THE GAMBLER—" I do not send you away; for all this I am glad. I know this is not the Queen's work. He (H. B. Co.) is the head; he does whatever he thinks all around here, that is the reason I cannot say anything."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"I am very sorry that you cannot answer."
THE GAMBLER—" The Company have stolen our land. I heard that at first. I hear it is true. The Queen's messengers never came here, and now I see the soldiers and the settlers and the policemen. I know it is not the Queen's work, only the Company has come and they are the head, they are foremost; I do not hold it back. Let this be put to rights; when this is righted I will answer the other."
LIEUT. GOV. MORRIS—" The Company have not brought their soldiers here. This man is not an officer of the Company. I 102 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. am not an officer of the Company. We did not come at the request of the Company, but at that of the Queen. I told you that the Queen had sent her policemen here. You see the flag there, then know that we are the Queen's servants, and not the Company's, and it is for you to decide on the message I have delivered to you."
THE GAMBLER—" When one Indian takes anything from another we call it stealing, and when we see the present we say pay us. It is the Company I mean."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"What did the Company steal from you?"
THE GAMBLER—" The earth, trees, grass, stones, all that which I see with my eyes."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" Who made the earth, the grass, the stone, and the wood? The Great Spirit. He made them for all his children to use, and it is not stealing to use the gift of the Great Spirit. The lands are the Queen's under the Great Spirit. The Chippewas were not always here. They come from the East. There were other Indians here and the Chippewas came here, and they used the wood and the land, the gifts of the Great Spirit to all, and we want to try and induce you to believe that we are asking for the good of all. We do not know how the division between us is to be taken away. We do not know of any lands that were stolen from you, and if you do not open your mouths we cannot get the wall taken away. You can open your mouths if you will; we are patient but we cannot remain here always.
THE GAMBLER—" I cannot manage to speak of anything else. It is this I am speaking. All the Indians know how the Company set their land in order long ago. The Company is making it more and that is the reason I am speaking."
LIEUT. -GOVERNOR MORRIS—" Many, many years ago, before we were born, one of the Kings gave the Company certain rights to trade in this country. The Queen thought that this was not just neither to the white nor the red man. She con The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 103sidered that all should be equal; but when the Queen's father's father's hand had been given she could not take it back without the Company's consent; therefore she told the Company that the time had come when they should no longer be the great power in this country, that she would plant her own flag, that she would send her own Governor and soldiers, and that they must cease to have the only right to trade here (and I am glad to know that some of you are good traders), the Queen then told the Company that she would govern the country herself, and she told them she would give them some land. They had their forts, their places of trade where they raised cattle and grain, and she told them they could keep them, and she will no more break with them than she will with you. There is no reason why you should not talk to us. The Company have no more power, no more authority to govern this country than you have, it rests with the Queen."
THE GAMBLER—" This is the reason I waited for the Queen's messengers to come here because I knew the Company was strong and powerful, and I knew they would set everything in order. Truly since the Company came here they have brought me many things which are good, but the Company's work is in my way and I cannot utter my words." 
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"What do you complain of? I can not tell."
THE GAMBLER—" The survey. This one (pointing to an Indian) did not say so, and this Saulteaux and he was never told about it. He should have been told beforehand that this was to have been done and it would not have been so, and I want to know why the Company have done so. This is the reason I am talking so much about it." 
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I have told you before that the Queen had promised to give the Company certain lands around the forts and she gave them land around this fort. I have told you that what she promised she will do. She has taken all the lands in this country to manage ; they were hers ; they 104 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. were her fathers ; if she gives you reserves they will be yours and she will let no one take them from you unless you want to sell them yourselves. It will be a sorry thing if this nation and that nation scattered all over the country are to suffer because of this little piece of land I see around me. What good is it going to do to raise up a question of this kind and block the way to our understanding each other when the Queen's hand, full of love and generosity is held out to you ? The blame rests with you ; it is time for you to talk, to open your mouth, because I cannot take away what shuts it, you must do it yourselves."
THE GAMBLER—"This is my chief, the Queen never told this man. If this had been told him, I would not have said what I said just now. The Company's store was only there at first. I do not push back the Queen's hand. Let this be cleared up.'
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS —" Once for all we tell you, whatever number of acres the Queen has promised to the Company at this post, they will receive no more and no less. We will ascertain what was promised, and will take care to see that what was promised and that only will be performed with regard to the land around this Fort. We can give you no other answer."
THE GAMBLER—"I am telling you and reporting what 1 had to tell. The Company have no right to this earth, but when they are spoken to they do not desist, but do it in spite of you. He is the head and foremost. These Indians you see sitting around report that they only allowed the store to be put up. That is the reason I was very glad when I heard you were coming. The Indians were not told of the reserves at all I hear now, it was the Queen gave the land. The Indians thought it was they who gave it to the Company, who are now all over the country. The Indians did not know when the land was given."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"I am weary hearing about the The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 105 country. You might understand me now. You are stronger than that little boy over there, and the Company is stronger than a single trader, but the Company has its master, the Queen, and will have to obey the laws as well as all others. We have nothing to do with the Company. We are here to talk with you about the land, I tell you what we wish to do for your good, but if you will talk about the Company I cannot hinder you, I think it is time now you should talk about what concerns you all."
THE GAMBLER—" That is the reason I waited so long. I cannot speak of anything else, my mind is resting on nothing else. I know that you will have power and good rules and this is why I am glad to tell you what is troubling me."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I have told you before and tell you again that the Queen cannot and will not undo what she has done. I have told you that we will see that the Company shall obey what she has ordered, and get no more and no less than she has promised. We might talk here all the year and I could not give you any other answer, and I put it to you now face to face—speak to me about your message, don't put it aside, if you do the responsibility will rest upon your nation, and during the winter that is coming, many a poor woman and child will be saying, how was it that our councillors and our braves shut their ears to the mouth of the Queen's messengers and refused to tell them their words. This Company, I have told you is nothing to us, it is nothing to the Queen, but their rights have to be respected just as much as those of the meanest child in the country. The Queen will do right between you and them. I can say no more than what I have said and if the Indians will not speak to us we cannot help it, and if the Indians wont answer our message, we must go back and tell the Queen that we came here and did everything we could to show the Indians we were in earnest in proving her love for them and that when there was a little difficulty, I came at once to meet them half way. What prevents you from coming 106 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. out and speaking openly. I cannot take away the difficulty you speak of, and. if you will not answer us, there is no use in talking."
THE GAMBLER—"I told the chief of the soldiers what was in our way, what was troubling us and now we are telling you. It is that I am working at."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" What is troubling you ?
PIS-QUA (the plain) pointing to Mr. McDonald, of the Hudson's Bay Company—" You told me you had sold your land for so much money, £300,000. We want that money."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS-" I wish our Indian brother had spoken before what was in his mind. He has been going here and there, and we never knew what he meant. I told you that many years ago the Queen's father's father gave the Company the right to trade in the country from the frozen ocean to the United States boundary line, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. The Company grew strong and wanted no one to trade in the country but themselves. The Queen's people said, "no, the land is not yours, the Queen's father's father gave you rights to trade, it is time those rights should stop." You may go on and trade like any other merchant, but as it was worth money to you to say to this trader you shall not buy furs at any post, the Queen would not act unjustly to the Company. She would not take rights away from them any more than from you; and to settle the question, she took all the lands into her own hands and gave the Company a sum of money in place of the rights which she had taken from them. She is ready to deal with you justly. We are here to-day to make to you her good offers. We have nothing to hide, nothing to conceal. The Queen acts in daylight. I think it is time you are going to talk with us about the offers we have made. "
THE GAMBLER—" I have made up about no other article. I suppose, indeed, I would make the thing very little and very small. When I get back I will think over it."
The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 107
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I have a word to say to you. In our land we worship the Great Spirit, and do not work on Sunday. I am glad to see that you are going back into council, and I will only ask you to think of these things with single hearts desiring only to do what is right and trusting my words. On Monday morning we will be glad to meet you here and hope we will find then that your heart has come to ours, that you will see that it is for your children's good, to take our hands and the promises we have given. As I told you before we would be glad to stay longer with you, but we are obliged to go away. We ask you then to meet us on Monday morning and Mr. Pratt will tell you so that there may be no mistake as to what we have promised. He has it written down so that it may not be rubbed out."
The conference then ended.
September 14.
Both nations, Crees and Saulteaux, having assembled, His Honor Lieut.-Governor Morris again addressed them :—
" Children of our Great Mother, I am glad to see you again after another day. How have you come to meet us ? I hope you have come to us with good thoughts, and hearts ready to meet ours. I have one or two words to say to you. It is twenty days to-day since we left the Red River. We want to turn our faces homewards. You told me on Saturday that some of you could eat a great deal. I have something to say to you about that. There are Indians who live here, they have their wives and children around them. It is good for them to be here, and have plenty to eat, but they ought to think of their brothers ; they ought to think that there are men here who have come from a distance, from Fort Pelly and beyond, whose very wives and children are not here to eat, and they want to be at home with them. It is time now that we began to understand
108 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
each other, and when there is something troubles us, I believe in telling it. When you told us you were troubled about the situation of this tent, we had it moved. Now we want you to take away our trouble, or tell us what you mean. We are troubled about this. We are servants of the Queen ; we have been here many days giving you our message, and we have not yet heard the voice of the nations. We have two nations here. We have the Crees, who were here first, and we have the Ojibbeways, who came from our country not many suns ago. We find them here ; we won't say they stole the land and the stones and the trees ; no, but we will say this, that we believe their brothers, the Crees, said to them when they came in here: "The land is wide, it is wide, it is big enough for us both ; let us live here like Brothers ;" and that is what you say, as you told us on Saturday, as to the Half-breeds that I see around. You say that you are one with them ; now we want all to be one. We know no difference between Crees and Ojibbeways. Now we want to ask you are you wiser, do you know more, than the Ojibbeway people that I met last year? You are a handful compared with them ; they came to me from the Lake of the Woods, from Rainy Lake, from the Kaministiquia, and from the Great Lake. I told them my message, as I have told you ; they heard my words and they said they were good, and they took my hand and I gave them mine and the presents ; but that is not all. There was a band of Ojibbeways who lived at Lake Seul, to the north of the Lake of the Woods, 400 in number, and just before we came away we sent our messenger to them. He told them I had shaken hands for the Queen with all the Ojibbeways down to the Great Lake. He told them what we had done for these, and asked them if they found it good to take the Queen's hand through our messenger; they were pleased ; they signed the treaty ; they put their names to it, saying, We take what you promised to the other Saulteaux ; and our messenger gave them the money, just as our messengers will give your brothers who are not The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 109 here the money if we understand each other. Now, we ask you again, are you wiser than your brothers that I have seen before? I do not think that you will say you are, but we want you to take away our last trouble. What I find strange is this: we are Chiefs; we have delivered the message of our great Queen, whose words never change, whose tongue and the tongues of whose messengers are never forked ; and how is it that we have not heard any voice back from the Crees or Saulteaux, or from their Chiefs? I see before me two Chiefs ; we know them to be Chiefs, because we see you put them before you to shake hands with us. They must have been made Chiefs, not for anything we are talking about to-day, not for any presents we are offering to you, not because of the land ; then why are they chiefs? Because I see they are old men ; the winds of many winters have whistled through their branches. I think they must have learned wisdom ; the words of the old are wise ; why then, we ask ourselves—and this is our trouble—Why are your Chiefs dumb? They can speak. One of them is called "Loud Voice." He must have been heard in the councils of the nation. Then I ask myself, why do they not answer? It cannot be that you are afraid; you are not women. In this country, now, no man need be afraid. If a white man does wrong to an Indian, the Queen will punish them. The other day at Fort Ellice, a white man, it is said, stole some furs from an Indian. The Queen's policemen took him at once; sent him down to Red River, and he is lying in jail now ; and if the Indians prove that he did wrong, he will be punished. You see then that if the white man does wrong to the Indian he will punished ; and it will be the same if the Indian does wrong to the white man. The red and white man must live together, and be good friends, and the Indians must live together like brothers with each other and the white man. I am afraid you are weary of my talking. Why do I talk so much? Because I have only your good at heart. I do not want to go away with my head down, to send 110 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. word to the Queen, "Your red children could not see that your heart was good towards them ; could not see as you see that it was for the good of themselves and their children's children to accept the good things you mean for them." I have done. Let us hear the voice of the people. Let us hear the voice of your old wise men."
COTE—" The same man that has spoken will speak yet."
KA-KIE-SHE-WAY (Loud Voice)—This is the one who will speak ; after he speaks I will show what I have to say."
Lieut.-Gov. MORRIS—" Understand me, what I want to know is, does he speak for the nations. If you prefer to speak by the voice of an orator I am glad. All we want is to hear the voice of the people, and I asked you at first to choose among yourselves those who would speak for you ; therefore I am glad to hear the man you have chosen, and I am glad to hear that after he has done the Chief will speak to us."
THE GAMBLER—" Saturday we met, we spoke to each other, we met at such a time as this time, and again we said we would tell each other something ; now, then, we will report to each other a little again. This Company man that we were speaking about, I do not hate him; as I loved him before I love him still, and I also want that the way he loved me at first he should love me the same; still, I wish that the Company would keep at his work the same as he did ; that I want to be signed on the paper. I want you to put it with your own hands. After he puts that there it is given to the Indians, then there will be another article to speak about. The Indians want the Company to keep at their post and nothing beyond. After that is signed they will talk about something else."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"I told you on Saturday that I had nothing to do with the Company. The Company have a right to trade. I cannot make them buy goods and bring them here, or stop them from bringing them. I dare say some of you are traders ; you do not ask me whether you shall buy The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 111 goods and sell them again, and I do not stop you. It is the same way with the Company. If they make money in bringing goods here they will bring them just as they used to do ; and I want you to understand it fully, the Company may have a little more money than the white traders, or the Half- breeds, or the Indians, but they have no more right, they have no more privileges, to trade than the Indians, or the Half- breeds, or the whites ; and that is written with a higher hand than ours, and we have no power to write anything, or to add anything, to what is written and remains in the Queen's house beyond the sea."
THE GAMBLER—" I do not want to drive the Company anywhere. What I said is, that they are to remain here at their house. Supposing you wanted to take them away, I would not let them go. I want them to remain here to have nothing but the trade. I do not hate them ; we always exchange with them, and would die if they went away."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I do not know whether we rightly understand or not. I think you have spoken wise words ; the Company helps you to live, and they have a right to sell goods as other traders. I do not know that I understand you rightly, that you do not want them to sell goods anywhere except at the posts; to keep at their posts there. If that is what you mean, I cannot say yes to that ; they have the same right to sell goods anywhere that you have. They are no longer as they were once. The Government of the country, I think I told you that before—understand me distinctly—the Government have nothing to do with the Company, but the Company and all their servants are subjects of the Queen and love and obey her laws. The day has gone past when they made the laws. They have to hear the laws the Queen makes, and like good subjects submit to them.
THE GAMBLER—" The Company is not to carry anything out into the country, but are to trade in the Fort. That is what we want signed on the paper ; then we will talk on other subjects."
112 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I have told you before, and I tell you again, that the Company as traders have the right to sell goods anywhere they please, just as you have, just as the whites have, just as the Half-breeds have, and we have no power to take it away from them. If the Company were to ask me to say to you that you were not to trade anywhere except in their Fort by the lake, you would think it very hard, and I would say to the Company, No, you shall not interfere with the Indians throughout our land. I would like to give you pleasure but I cannot do wrong; we won't deceive you with smooth words. We will tell you the simple truth what we can do and what we cannot. do, but we cannot interfere as you ask us."
THE GAMBLER—"Cannot you sign such a paper ?"
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" No; the Queen has signed the great paper, and the Company have no more rights than any one else, but they have the same."
KA-KIE-SHE-WAY (Loud Voice)—" I would not be at a loss, but I am, because we are not united—the Crees and the Salteaux—this is troubling me. I am trying to bring all together in one mind, and this is delaying us. If we could put that in order, if we were all joined together and everything was right I would like it. I would like to part well satisfied and pleased. I hear that His Excellency is unwell, and I wish that everything would be easy in his mind. It is this that annoys me, that things do not come together. I wish for one day more, and after that there would not be much in my way."
COTE—" You wanted me to come here and I came here. I find nothing, and I do not think anything will go right. I know what you want ; I cannot speak of anything here concerning my own land until I go to my own land. Whenever you desire to see me I will tell you what you are asking me here. Now I want to return."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" We asked the Chief to come here. The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 113 He has as much right to be here as another Indian. We cannot go there and ask the people of the two great tribes to meet in one place as they have done when they were asked to meet us. You have had many days to talk together. If the Saulteaux are determined that they want an agreement to prevent the Company from trading, it cannot be given. I think the Chief here spoke wisely. He says he is in trouble because you do not understand each other. Why are you not of one mind? Have you tried to be of one mind ?' Must we go back and say we have had you here so many days, and that you had not the minds of men—that you were not able to understand each other? Must we go back and tell the Queen that we held out our hands for her, and her red children put them back again? If that be the message that your conduct to-day is going to make us carry back, I am sorry for you, and fear it will be a long day before you again see the Queen's Councillors here to try to do you good. The Queen and her Councillors may think that you do not want to be friends, that you do not want your little ones to be taught, that you do not want when the food is getting scarce to have a hand in yours stronger than yours to help you. Surely you will think again before you turn your backs on the offers ; you will not let so little a question as this about the Company, without whom you tell me you could not live, stop the good we mean to do. I hope that I am perfectly understood ; when we asked the chief here we wanted to speak with him about his lands at his place ; when we asked "Loud Voice " here we wanted to speak with him about the land at his place ; so when we asked the other chiefs here we wanted to speak with them about the lands at their places. Why? because we did not want to do anything that you would not all know about, that there might be no bad feelings amongst you. We wanted you to be of one mind and heart in this matter, and that is the reason you are here to-day. Now it rests with you; we have done all we could. Have you anything more to say to us, or are we to turn our 114 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. backs upon you, and go away with sorry hearts for you and your children? It remains for you to say."
THE GAMBLER—" We do not understand you and what you are talking about. I do not keep it from you ; we have not chosen our Chiefs; we have not appointed our soldiers and councillors ; we have not looked around us yet, and chosen our land, which I understand you to tell us to choose. We do not want to play with you, but we cannot appoint our Chiefs and head men quickly; that is in the way. Now it is near midday, and we cannot appoint our Chiefs. This Chief who got up last—the Queen's name was used when he was appointed to be Chief—he wants to know where his land is to be and see it. what like it is to be, and to find the number of his children ; that is what is in his mind. He says he came from afar, he had a good mind for coming, and he takes the same good mind away with him. I have not heard him say to the Saulteaux to keep back their land."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I think I understand you. We do not want to separate in bad feeling, or to avoid any trouble in coming to an understanding with you ; because I do not believe that if we do not agree it will ever be my good fortune to endeavor to do so again. "Loud Voice," the Chief, has told us he wants a day to think it over. The Chief "Cote," from the north, would like to go home, but I am sure he will stop a day and try to understand his brothers, and agree as the others did at the Lake of the Woods. I put my name, and the Chiefs and the head men put theirs, and I gave the Chief a copy, and I told him when I went home to Red River I would have it all written out, a true copy made on skin, that could not be rubbed out, that I would send a copy to his people so that when we were dead and gone the letter would be there to speak for itself, to show everything that was promised ; and that was the right way to do. I did so, and sent a copy of the treaty written in letters of blue. gold, and black to the Chief "Maw-do-pe-nais," whom the people had told to keep it for The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 115 them. He who speaks for the Saulteaux tells us they have not made up their minds yet about the land—he tells us they have not decided to refuse our hands. I am glad to hear him say that, and if it will please my Indian brethren here we will be glad to wait another day and meet them here to-morrow morning, if they will promise me with the words of men that they will look this matter straight in the face ; that they will lay aside every feeling except the good of their people, and try to see what is right, and that they will come back and say, 'We have done our best, we have tried to be of one mind, and consideled what was best for now, and to-morrow, and the years that are to come when we have all passed away. This is our answer. We are very much in earnest about this matter.' The Chief said I was not very well, yet I am here. Why? Because the duty was laid upon me. I was afraid of the journey ; but when a Chief has a duty to do he tries to do it, and I felt that if I could do you any good, as I believed I could, I ought to be here. I tell you this, trust my words, they come from the heart of one who loves the Indian people, and who is charged by his Queen to tell them the words of truth."
The Crees having come and shaken hands, His Honor Lieut.- Gov. Morris rose and said :
"My friends, I have talked much ; I would like to hear your voices, I would like to hear what you say."
KA-KU-ISH-MAY, (Loud Voice—a principal chief of the Crees) —" I am very much pleased with that, to listen to my friends, for certainly it is good to report to each other what is for the benefit of each other. We see the good you wish to show us. If you like what we lay before you we will like it too. Let us join together and make the Treaty ; when both join together it is very good."
116 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
The Saulteaux arrived at this juncture, when the Lieut.-Governor said : 
" I will say to the two tribes what I said to the Crees before the Saulteaux came. You have heard my voice for many days, you know its sound. You have looked in my face, you have seen my mind through my face, and you know my words are true and that they do not change. But I am not here to talk to-day, I am here to listen. You have had our message, you have had the Queen's words. It is time now that you spoke. I am here to listen, my ears are open. It is for you to speak."
KAMOOSES—" Brothers, I have one word and a small one, that is the reason I cannot finish anything that is large. You do not see the whole number of my tribe which is away at my back, that is the reason I am so slow in making ready."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"I want to hear the voice of those who are here, they can speak for themselves and for those who are away."
CHE-E-KUK (the Worthy One)—" My ears are open to what you say. Just now the Great Spirit is watching over us ; it is good, He who has strength and power is overlooking our doings. I want very much to be good in what we are going to talk about, and our Chiefs will take you by the hand just now."
The Chiefs now rose and shook hands with the Commissioners.
KA-HA-OO-KUS-KA-TOO (he who walks on four claws)—" It is very good to meet together on a fine day, father. When my father used to bring me anything I used to go and meet him, and when my father had given it to me I gave it to my mother to cook it. When we come to join together one half at least will come."
CHE-E-KUK (the Worthy)—" Now I am going to tell you, and you say .your ears are open. You see the Qu'Appelle Lake Indians that you wished to see, you hear me speak but there are many far away, and that is the reason I cannot speak for these my children who are away trying to get something to The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 117 eat ; the Crees my child is not here, the Saulteaux my child is not here, the Young Dogs are not here, the Stonies my children are not here ; this is not the number that you see ; I am only telling you this, I think I have opened my mind."
LIEUT.-GOV MORRIS—" I know you are not all here. We never could get you all together, but you know what is good for you and for your children. When I met the Saulteaux last year we had not 4,000 there, but there were men like you who knew what was good for themselves, for their wives, for their children, and those not born. I gave to those who were there, and they took my hand and took what was in it, and I sent to those who were away, and I did for them just as I did for those who were present. It is the same to-day. What we are ready to give you will be given to those who are not here. What is good for you, what you think will be good for you will be good for them. It is for you to say, not for us ; we have done all that men who love their red brothers can do ; it is for you now to act, on you rests the duty of saying whether you believe our message or not, whether you want the Queen to help you or not, whether or not you will go away and let the days and the years go on, and let the food grow scarcer, and let your children grow up and do nothing to keep off the hunger and the cold that is before them. It is for you to say that, not for us; if we had not your good at heart we would not have been here, and we would not have labored these many days, if our hearts were not warm towards you, and if we did not believe what we are doing, would be for your good as children of our Queen. I have said all."
KAN-OO-SES— "Is it true you are bringing the Queen's kindness? Is it true you are bringing the Queen's messenger's kindness? Is it true you are going to give my child what he may use? Is it true you are going to give the different bands the Queen's kindness? Is it true that you bring the Queen's hand? Is it true you are bringing the Queen's power ?"
118 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
Liet.-Gov. MORRIS—" Yes, to those who are here and those who are absent, such as she has given us."
KAMOOSES—" Is it true that my child will not be troubled for what you are bringing him ?"
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"The Queen's power will be around him."
KAMOOSES—" Now, I am going to ask you that the debt that has been lying in the Company's store, I want that to be wiped out. I ask it from the great men of the Queen."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—"I told you before we have nothing to do with the Company, we have nothing to do with its debts. I have told you what we will do for you, What the Queen will do for you forever. But the money that the Indian owes the Company is just like the money that the Indians owe to each other or to any trader and is not due to the Queen. We have no power to put money in your hands and your children's to pay your debts, and it would not be right for the Queen to come in and take away either what is between you and the Company, or what is between you and the traders, or what is betwen you and each other. If one of you owes the Chief is it right that the Queen should wipe it out? I would be very glad if we had it in our power to wipe out your debts, but it is not in our power. All we can do is to put money in your hands and promise to put money in the hands of those who are away, and give you money every year afterwards, and help you to make a living when the food is scarce. I have told you from the first that whether my words please you or not I will tell you only the truth, and I will only speak as far as the Queen has given us power."
(He who walks on four claws)—" Whenever you give to these my children what they desire, then you will get what you want."
LIEUT-Gov. Morris---"We will give them what we have power to give. We are ready to hear."
KAMOOSES—" Yes, I understand and my heart also, but it is The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 119 not large, it is small, and my understanding is small ; that is the word I tell you."
LIEUT-GOV. MORRIS—" I have told you what we are ready to do for you. Your understanding is large enough to know what is good for you. We have talked these many days, and I ask you now to talk straight, to tell me your mind, to tell me whether you wish to take our offers or not, it is for you to say."
KEE-E-KUK—" Twenty dollars we want to be put in our hand every year, this we have heard from the others. Twenty-five dollars to each chief."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" If I understand you aright you are mistaken. The Saulteaux did not get twenty-five dollars per head. They get five dollars every year. We promised them five dollars every year, and a messenger was sent this year to pay them that sum. I may tell you that my children at the Lake of the Woods had big hearts to ask. You say you have small. I told them that if the Queen gave them all they asked I would have to ask her to allow me to become an Indian, but I told them I could not give them what they asked, and when they understood that, and understood the full breadth and width of the Queen's goodness, they took what I offered, and I think if you are wise you will do the same."
(A proposition was made here by an Indian that they should receive five dollars per head every second year for fifty years, but he must have done so without authority as it was not acceded to by the other Indians who expressed their dissent strongly as soon as the offer was made.)
KAMOOSES—" I am going to speak for Loud Voice and for tho other chiefs. Some chiefs are not here, they are absent, hereafter you will see them. I myself will tell them, and my child that is at my back will tell them also. \Vill you receive that which I am asking? I want to clear up what the Indians and I want to try and put it right, what my child will say. Well, can you give me that. We Want the same Treaty you 120 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians. have given to the North-West Angle. This I am asking for."
LIEUT.-Gov. Morris—"Who are you speaking for? Is it' for the whole of the Indians? (They expressed their assent.) Are you ready to carry it out? (They again assented.) Are your chiefs ready to sign this afternoon if we grant you these terms? (The Indians assented unanimously.) It is now after twelve, we will speak to you this afternoon."
The Conference here ended to allow the Commissioners time to consult.
The Indians having assembled, presented the Chiefs, Whose names appear on the Treaty to the Commissioners as their Chiefs.
KAMOOSES—" To-day we are met together here and our minds are open. We want to know the terms of the North- West Angle Treaty."
LIEUT.-Gov. Morris—"Do we understand that you want the same terms which were given at the Lake of the Woods. (The Indians assented.) I have the Treaty here in a book. You must know that the steamboats had been running through their waters, and our soldiers had been marching through their country, and for that reason we offered the Ojibbeways a larger sum than we offered you. Last year it was a present, covering five years ; with you it was a present for this year only. I paid the Indians there a present in money down of twelve dollars per head. I have told you why we offered you less, and you will see there were reasons for it. That is the greatest difference between what we offered you and what was paid them, but on the other hand there were some things promised you that were not given at the Lake of the Woods. (His Honor then explained the terms granted in that Treaty.) We promised there that the Queen would spend $1,500 per year to buy shot and powder, ball and twine. There were 4,000 of The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 121 them. I offered you $1,000 although you are only one-half the number, as I do not think you number more than 2,000. Your proportionate share would be $750 which you shallreceive. Then at the Lake of the Woods each Chief had their head men; we have said you would have four who shall have fifteen dollars each per year, and as at the Lake of the Woods each Chief and head man will receive a suit of clothing once in three years, and each Chief on signing the treaty will receive a medal and the promise of a flag. We cannot give you the flag now, as there were none to be bought at Red River, but we have the medals here. Now I have told you the terms we gave at the North-West Angle of the Lake of the Woods, and you will see that the only difference of any consequence between there and what we offered you is in the money payment that we give as a present, and I have told you why we made the difference, and you will see that it was just. We had to speak with them for four years that had gone away. We speak to you only for four days. It was not that we came in the spirit of traders, but because we were trying to do what was just between you and the Queen, and the other Indians who would say that we had treated you better than we had treated them because we put the children of this year on the same footing as these children through whose land we had been passing and running our steamboats for four years. You see when you ask us to tell you everything, we show you all that has been done, and I have to tell you again that the Ojibbeways at Lake Seul who number 400, when I sent a messenger this spring with a copy of those terms made at the North-West Angle with their nation, took the Queen's hand by my messenger and made the same treaty. I think I have told you all you want to know, and our ears are open again."
KAMOOSES—" I want to put it a little light for all my children around me, something more on the top. For my chief thirty dollars, for my four chief head men twenty dollars, and each of my young children fifteen dollars a year."
122 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I am afraid you are not talking to us straight ; when we went away you asked us to give you the terms given at the Lake of the Woods; you asked to know what they were, and the moment I told you, you ask three times as much for your children as I gave them. That would not be right; and it is well that you should know that we have not power to do so ; we can give you no more than we gave them. We hope you are satisfied. I have one word more to say, we are in the last hours of the day you asked us for and we must leave you. The utmost we can do, the furthest we can go or that we ought to go is, to do what you asked, to give you the terms granted last year at the Lake of the Woods. We can do no more, and you have our last words. It is for you to say whether you are satisfied or not."
KAMOOSES—" We ask that we may have cattle."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" We offered you cattle on the first day, we offered your Chief cattle for the use of his band—not for himself, but for the use of his band; we gave the same at the Lake of the Woods. We can give no more here."
KAMOOSES—" We want some food to take us home."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" When you sign the treaty, provisions will be given to take you home. Now I ask you, are you ready to accept the offer, the last offer we can make, you will see we have put you on the same footing as the Indians at the Lake of the Woods, and we think it is more than we ought to give, but rather than not close the matter we have given it, we have talked long enough about this. It is time we did something. Now I would ask, are the Crees and the Saulteaux and the other Indians ready to make the treaty with us. Since we went away we have had the treaty written out, and we are ready to have it signed, and we will leave a copy with any Chief you may select and after we leave we will have a copy written out on skin that cannot be rubbed out and put up in a tin box, so that it cannot be wet, so that The Qu'Appelle Treaty. 123 you can keep it among yourselves so that when we are dead our children will know what was written."
KAMOOSES—" Yes, we want each Chief to have a copy of the treaty, we ask that the Half-breeds may have the right of hunting."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" We will send a copy to each Chief. As to the Half-breeds, you need not be afraid ; the Queen will deal justly, fairly and generously with all her children."
The Chiefs then signed the treaty, after having been assured that they would never be made ashamed of what they then did.
One of the Chiefs on being asked to do so signed ; the second called on said he was promised the money when he signed, and returned to his seat without doing so. The Lieutenant- Governor called him forward—held out his hand to him and said, take my hand ; it holds the money. If you can trust us forever you can do so for half an hour; sign the treaty. The Chief took the Governor's hands and touched the pen, and the others followed. As soon as the treaty was signed the Governor expressed the satisfaction of the Commissioners with the Indians, and said that Mr. Christie and Mr. Dickieson, the Private Secretary of the Minister of the Interior, were ready to advance the money presents, but the Indians requested that the payment should be postponed till next morning, which was acceded to. The Chiefs then formally approached the Commissioners and shook hands with them, after which the conference adjourned, the Commissioners leaving the place of meeting under escort of the command of Lieut.-Col. Smith, who had been in daily attendance.
124 The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
Report of the interview at Fort Ellice between the Indian Commissioners and certain Saulteaux Indians not present at Qu'Appelle, and not included in Treaty Number Two, the Chief being Way-wa-se-ca-pow, or "the Man proud of standing upright :"
Lieut.-Governor Morris said he had been here before, and since that time he had met the Crees and Saulteaux nations, and had made a treaty with them. The Indians there were from Fort Pelly and as far distant as the Cypress Hills. He wished to know the number of the Saulteaux to be found in this locality. 
The Chief said there were about thirty tents who were not at Qu'Appelle, and ten who were there.
LIEUT.-Gov. MORRIS—The Commissioners here are representing the Queen. I made a treaty with the Saulteaux last year at the Lake of the Woods. They were not a little handful; but there were 4,000 of them—and now we have made a treaty with the Crees and Saulteaux at Qu'Appelle. There is not much need to say much—it is good for the Indians to make treaties with the Queen—good for them and their wives and children. Game is getting scarce and the Queen is willing to help her children. Now we are ready to give you what we gave the Saulteaux at the Lake of the Woods and the Saulteaux and Crees at Qu'Appelle. It will be for you to say whether you will accept it or not." His Honor then explained the treaty to them.
" What we offer will be for your good, as it will help you, and not prevent you from hunting.
"We are not traders. I have told you all we can do and all we will do. It is for you to say whether you will accept my hand or not. I cannot wait long. I think you are not wiser than your brothers. Our ears are open, you can speak to us."
LONG CLAWS-—"My father—I shake hands with you, I shake hands with the Queen."
The Fort Ellice Treaty. 125
SHAPONETUNG'S FIRST SON—" I find what was done at Qu'Appelle was good, does it take in all my children ?"
SHAPONETUNG'S FIRST SON—" I thank you for coming and bringing what is good for our children."
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I forgot to say that we will be able to give you a small present, some powder and shot, blankets and calicoes. Each band must have a Chief and four headmen, but you are not all here to-day. I want to-day to know the Chief and two headmen.
"Now I want to know will you take my hand and what is in it."
The Indians came up and shook hands in token of acceptance.
LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS—" I am glad to shake hands with you ; the white man and the red man have shaken hands and are friends. You must be good subjects to the Queen and obey her laws."
The Indians introduced as their Chief, Way-wa-se-ca-pow; and as their headmen, Ota-ma-koo-euin and Shaponetung's first son.
His Honor then explained the memorandum to them, when it was signed.


Morris, Alexander. The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West Territories Including the Negotiations on Which They Are Based, and Other Information Relating Thereto.. Toronto: Willing & Williamson, 1880. Digitized by University of Alberta Libraries.



Selection of input documents and completion of metadata: Gordon Lyall.

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