Survey of London: Gates

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25
Gates in the wall of this Citie.
GAtes
Gates of Lon-
don
4 north,
south, east and
west.
in the wall of this Citie of olde time
were 4 to wit, Aldgate for the east, Al-
dersgate
for the North, Ludgate for the
West, and the Bridgegate ouer the ri-
uer of Thames, for the South, but of la-
ter times for the ease of the Citizens and
Passengers, diuers other gates and Po-
sterns
haue beene made as shalbe shewed.
In the raigne of Henry the ſecond (saith Fitzstephen) there
were seuen double gates in the wall of this Citie, but he nameth
them not. It may be supposed he ment for the first, the gate next
to the Tower of London, which then serued as a Posterne for
Passengers out of the East: from thence through Towerstreete,
Eastcheape
, and Candleweekestrete, to Londonstone, the midle
point of that high way : then through Budgerow, watheling-
streete
, and leauing Paules Church on the right hand, to Lud-
gate
in the west, the next be Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Criplegate,
Aldersgate, Ludgate
, and the Bridgegate, ouer the Thames.
Since the which time hath been builded Newgate, the Posterne
called Moregate, a Posterne from Christeshospital, towardes
S. Bartelmewes Hospitall in Smithfielde &c. Of euery of
these gates and Posterns as also of certeine watergates seueral-
ly somewhat may bée noted, as I finde authority to warrant
mee.
The first was the Posterne gate next vnto the Tower of Lon-
don
Posterne by
the Tower of
London
.
which at the length fell downe in the yeare 1440. the 18. of
Henry the 6
. and was neuer reedified againe of stone, but an
homely cotage with a narrow passage made of timber, lath, and
loame: hath beene in place thereof set vp, and so remaineth. The
ruine of the saide Posterne began in the yeare 1190. the ſecond
of Richarde the firſt
, william Longshampe Bishop of Ely and
Chauncelor of England, caused a part of the city wal, to wit, from
the saide gate towardes the riuer of Thames to bee broken down
for the enlarging of the Tower, which Tower he compassed far
C5
wide
C5

26
Gates of this Citie.
wide aboute with a wal, and is now the vtter wal of the Tower,
he also caused a broade and deepe ditch to bee made without the
same wal, intending to haue deriued the riuer of Thames, to haue
flowed aboute it. By meanes of this ditch the foundation of that
gate being loosed and greately weakened, fell at the length, as yée
haue hearde and so remaineth.
The next in the East in Aldgate of olde time so called of the an-
tiquitie or age thereof. It appeareth by a Charter of king Ed-
gar
to the Knightes of Kinghtone Guilde, that in his dayes the
said Porte was called Aldgate. Also Matilde the Queene, wife
to Henry the firſt, in the eight yere of his raigne, hauing foun-
ded the Priorie of the Holy Trinitie within Aldegate, gaue vnto
the same church, to Norman the first Prior, and the Canons that
deuoutlie serued God therein, the Porte of Aldegate, & the Soke
or
Soke or Court
Franchise thereunto belonging with al customs, as free as shee
held the same, &c. In the which Charter, shee nameth the house
Christes church, and reporteth Aldegate to bée of her demaine.
The next towards the north, is called Bishopsgate, for that, as it
may be supposed, the same was first builded by some Bishoppe of
London, the certaynty whereof is vnknown, but true it is that
this gate was first builded for the ease of the passengers towards
the East and by North, as into Norfolke, Suffolke, Cambridge-
shire
, &c. The Trauellers into which parts before the building of
this gate were forced, passing out at Aldegate, to goe east till
they came to the Miles end, & then to turne on the left hand to Ble-
thenhal green
now called Bednal greene, to Cambridge heath,
and so North, or East and by North, as their Iourney lay. If
they tooke not this way, by the East out at Aldgate, they must
take their way by the North out at Aldersgate through Alders-
gate streete
, and Goswelstreete towards Iseldon, and by a crosse
of stone on their right hand, set vp for a marke by the North ende
of Golding lane to turne Eastwarde through a long streete vntill
this day called Aldestreete, to an other crosse standing, where now
standeth a Smithes Forge by Sewers ditch church, and then to
turne againe North towardes Totenham, Endfield, Waltham,
Ware, &c
. The eldest note that I reade of this Bishopsgate, is
that wiliam Blund one of the Sheriffes of London in the yeare,
Liber trinitati.
1210

Gates of this Citie.
27
1210. solde to Serle Mercer, and VVilliam Almaine, procu-
rators, or Wardens, of London bridge, all his land with the
garden, in the Parish of S. Buttolph without Bishopsgate,
betweene the land of Richard Casiarin towards the north, and
the lande of Robert Crispie towardes the South, and the high
way called Bearewardes lane
Bishopsgate
streete
with-
out, of old
time called
Bearewardes
lane
.
on the East &c. Next I reade
in a Charter
Charter.
dated the yere 1235. that Walter Brune Citizen of
London, and Rosia his wife founded the Priorie or new Hospital
of our blessed Lady, since called S. Mary Spittle, without Bishops-
gate
, for Canons regular the 19. of Henry the thirde. Also in the
yeare 1247. Simon Fitzmarie, one of the Sherifes of London,
the 29. of H. the thirde, founded the Hospitall of S. Marie,
Recorde.
called
Bethlem without Bishopsgate. Thus much for Antiquitie, now
for repayring of this gate. I find, that Henry the thirde graun-
ted or confirmed to the Marchantes of the Haunce,
Liber cu-
stome,
London.
that had an
house in the citie called Guildhalla Theutonicorum, certaine
Liberties and Priuiledges. Edwarde the first also confirmed
the same. In the 10. yeare of whoſe raigne, it was founde that
the saide Marchantes ought of right to repayre the saide gate cal-
led Bishopsgate. Whereupon Gerarde Marbod, Alderman of
the Haunce and other, then remayning in the Citie of London: for
themselues, and al others Marchants of the saide hance, granted,
210. markes sterling to the Maior and Citizens. And couenanted
that they and their successors should from time to time repayre the
same gate.
Bishopsgate
repared by
the Marchants
of the Haunce
Bishopsgate
was builded.
This gate was againe beutifully builded in the yere
1479. in the raigne of Edwarde the 4. by the saide Haunce
Marchantes: MorThis text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on guesswork. (SM)eo1uer aboute the yeare 1551. these Haunce
Marchantes hauing prepared stone for that purpose, caused a new
gate to be framed, there to haue beene set vp, but then their. Li-
berties through suite of our English Marchantes, were seazed in-
to the Kings hand, and so that worke was stayed, and the olde
gate yet remaineth.
Touching the next Posterne, called Moregate,
Bishopsgate,
prouided to
haue beene
new builded
Posterne,
called Moore-
gate
.
I finde that
Thomas Faulconer Maior, aboute the yeare one thouſande
foure hundred and fifeteene
, the third of Henry the fifte, caused
the wall of the Citie to bee broken neare vnto Colemanstreete
and

28
Gates of this Citie.
and there builded a Posterne, now called Moregate, vppon the
Moore side where was neuer gate before. This gate he made
for ease of the Citizens, that way to passe vppon causewaies
into the fielde, for their recreation: For the same fielde was at
that time a Marrish. This Posterne was reedified by Wil-
liam Hampton
Fishmonger Maior, in the yeare 1472. In
the yeare also, 1511. the thirde of Henry the eight. Roger A-
chely
Maior, caused Dikes and Bridges to bee made, and the
ground to bee leuiled, and made more commodious for passage
since which time the same hath beene heighthened. So much
that the Ditches and Bridges are couered, and if it bee made le-
uill with the Battlementes of the Citie wall: yet will it bee lit-
tle the drier, such is the Moorish nature of the grounde. The
next is the Posterne of Cripplegate so called long before the
Conquest. For I reade in the Historie of Edmonde King of
the East Angles, written by Abba Floriacensis, & by Burchard
sometime Secretarie to Offa king of Marcia. That in the
yeare 1010. The Danes spoiling the kingdom of the East
Angles, Alwyne Bishop of Helmeham, caused the bodie of
king Edmonde the Martir to bee brought from Bedrisworth,
(now called Bury S. Edmondes) through the kingdome of
the East Saxons, and so to London in at Cripplegate, a place
(saith mine Author) so called of Criples begging there:at which
gate, (it was saide) the bodie entering, miracles were wrought,
as some of the Lame did goe vpright, praising God. The
bodie of King Edmond rested for the space of three yeares in
the Parrish church of Saint Gregorie, neare vnto the Cathe-
drall Church of Saint Paule
. Moreouer the Charter of
William the Conqueror, confirming the foundation of the
Colledge in London called S. Martin the greate, hath these
wordes. I doe geue and graunt to the same Church and
Cannons, seruing God therein. All the lande and the
Moore without the Posterne
, which is called Cripplegate,
on eyther parte of the Posterne.
Liber S Bar-
tilmew.
Besides this Alfune builded
the parrish church of S. Giles nigh a gate of the citie called
Porta contractorum, or Criplesgate about the yeare 1090.
This

Gates of this Citie.
29
This Posterne was sometime a prison, wherevnto such Citti-
zens and others, as were arrested for debt,
Criplesgate
a prison for
trespassors.
or common trespasses
were committed, as they be now to the Compters, which thing
appeareth by a writte of Edward the first in these wordes: Rex
vic. London, salutem: ex graui querela B. capt. & detent.
in prisona nostra de Criples gate pro
x.£,
Record.
quas colam Radul-
pho de Sandwico tunc custod, Ciuitatis nostræ London, & I.
de Blackwell ciuis recognit. debit. &c
. This gate was new
builded by the Brewers of London in the yeare 1244. as saith
Fabians Manscript.
Criplesgate
new builded.
Edmond Shaw Goldsmith, Mayor, in the yeare 1483. at his
decease appoynted by his testament his executors, with the cost
of 400. Markes, and the stuffe of the olde gate, called Criples
gate
, to builde the same gate of new, which was performed and
done, in the yeare 1491. The next is Aldresgate or Aldersgate,
so called not of Aldrich, or of Elders, that is to say, auncient men,
builders thereof,
Beware the
Cat.
nor of Eldarne trées growing there more aboun-
dantly, then in other places, as some haue fabuled, but for the very
antiquitie of the gate it selfe, as being one of the first foure gates
of the cittie, and seruing for the Northerne partes, as Aldegate
did for the East, which two gates being both old gates, are for dif-
ference sake called, the one Aldegate, and the other Aldergate.
This gate hath at sundry times béene increased with buildinges,
namely, on the south or innerside, a great frame of timber hath
béene added and set vp, contayning diuers large roomes, and lodge-
tnges: also on the East side, is the addition of one great building
of timber, with one large floore paued with stone, or tile, and a
Well therein curbed with stone, of a great depth, and rysing into
the said roome, which is two stories high from the ground: which
Well is the onely peculiar note belonging to that gate, for I haue
not séene the like in all this Cittie, to be raysed so high. Iohn Day
Stationer, a late famous printer of many good bookes, in our time
dwelled in this gate, and builded much vpon the
A Postern out
of Christes
Hospitall
,
wall of the cittie
towards the parish Church of Saint Anne. Then is there also
a Posterne gate made out of the wall on the North side of the late
dissolued cloyster of Friers minors, commonly of their habite cal-
led Gray Friers, now Christes Church, and Hospitall. This Po-
sternee

30
Gates of this Citie.
sterne was made in the ſixt yeare of Edward the ſixt, to passe from
the said Hospitall of Christes Church, vnto the Hospitall of Saint
Bartlemew
in Smithfield.
The next gate on the west, and by North, is termed Newgate,
as latelier builded then the rest. This gate was first erected about
the raigne of Henry the ſecond, or Richard the firſt, vpon this
occasion. The Cathedrall Church of Saint Paule, being burnt
about the yeare 1086. in the raigne of VVilliam the Conque-
ror
, Mauritius then Bishoppe of London, rapayred not the olde
church, as some haue supposed, but began the foundation of a new
worke, such as men then iudged would neuer haue béene perfor-
med, it was to them so wonderfull for height, length, and breadth,
as also in respect it was raysed vppon arches or vaults, &c. After
Mauritius, Richard Beamore did wonderfully aduance the work
of the said Church, purchasing the large stréetes, and lanes round
about, wherein were wont to dwell many lay people, which
grounds he began to compasse about with a strong wall of stone,
and gates. By meanes of this increase of the Church territo-
rie, but more by inclosing of grounde, for so large a cemitorie, or
church yarde: the high and large stréete stretching from Aldegate
in the East, vntill Ludgate in the West, was in this place so
crossed and stopped vp, that the carriage through the cittie West-
warde, was forced to passe without the saide churchyarde wall on
the North side, through Pater noster row: and then south down
Aue Mary lane, and againe West through Bowiar row to Lud-
gate
: or else out of Chepe, or Wathelingstreet to turne South
through the old Exchaunge, then West through Carter lane: a-
gaine North vp Créede lane, and then West to Ludgate. Which
passage, by reason of so often turning, was very combersome, and
daungerous both for horse and man.
Newgate first
builded, and
the cause why.
For remedie whereof, a new
gate was made, and so called, by which men and cattell with all
manner of carriages, might passe more directly (as afore) from
Aldegate, through West Cheape by Paules on the North side,
through Saint Nicholas Shambles, and Newgate market to
Newgate, and from thence to any part Westwarde ouer Old-
borne
bridge
, or turning without the gate into Smithfielde, and
through Iseldon to any part North and by West. This gate
hath

Gates of this Citie.
31
hath of long time béene a Gayle,
Close role.
Newgate a
This text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on guesswork. (SM)i2ayle or pri-
son house.
The king re-
payred it.
or prison, for fellons and trespas-
sors, as appeareth by records in the raigne of King Iohn , of which
amongst other I find one testifying that in the yeare 1218. The
third of King Henry the thirde, the King writeth vnto the She-
riffes of London, commaunding them to repaire the Gaile of
Newgate, for the safe keeping of his prisoners, and that the char-
ges which they should lay out, should be allowed vnto them vpon
their accompt in the Exchequer. Moreouer in the yeare 1241.
the Iewes of Norwich were hanged for circumcising a Christian
childe, their house called the Thor, was pulled downe and destroi-
ed, Aron the sonne of Abraham a Iew, at London, and the other
Iewes were constrained to pay twentie thousand markes at two
termes in the year, or els to be kept perpetuall prisoners in New-
gate
of London and in other prisons. 1255. King Henry the
thirde
lodging in the Tower of London, vppon displeasure con-
ceyued towards the Cittie of London, for the escape of Iohn Of-
frem
a prisoner being a Clearke conuict, out of Newgate, which
had killed a Prior that was of alliance to the King, as cosen to the
Queene, he sent for the Mayor and Sheriffes to come before him,
to aunswere the matter: the Mayor laid the fault from him to the
Sheriffes,
The Shiriffes
of London
prisoners in
the Tower
for escape of
a prisoner
out of
Newgate.
forsomuch as to them belonged the keeping of all pri-
soners within the cittie, and so the Mayor returned home, but the
Sheriffes remayned there prisoners, by the space of one Moneth
and more, and yet they excused themselues in that the fault chiefly
rested in the Bishops Officers: for whereas the prisoner was vn-
der custodie, they at his request had graunted licence to imprison
the offendor within the Gaile of Newgate, but so as the Bishops
Officers were charged to sée him safely kept. The King not-
withstanding all this, demanded of the cittie 3000. markes for a
fine. In the yeare 1326. Robert Baldoke, the kinges Chan-
cellor was put in Newgate.
The kinges
Chauncellor
prisoner in
New gate.
In the yeare 1337. S. Iohn Poult-
ney
gaue foure markes by the yeare, to the reliefe of prisoners in
Newgate. In the yeare 1385. William Wallwoorth gaue som-
what to relieue the prisoners in Newgate so haue manie others
since also. In the yeare 1414. the Gaylors of Newgate and Lud-
gate
dyed, and prisoners in Newgate to the number of 64. In the
1418. The Parson of Wrotham in Kent was imprisoned in
32
Gates of this Citie.
Newgate. The yeare 1422. the firſt of Henry the ſixt, licence
was granted to Iohn Couentre, Ianken Carpenter, and Wil-
liam Greue
,
Newgate new
builded.
executors to Richard Whittington, to reedifie the
Gaile of Newgate, which they did with his goodes. Lastly Tho-
mas Knowles
Mayor, by licence of Reynold Prior of S. Bartle-
mewes
, in Smithfield, and also of Iohn Wakering Mayster of
the Hospitall of S. Bartlemewe, and his brethren, conueyed the
waste of water at the cesterne néere to the common fountaine and
Chappell of S. Nicholas, (situate by the saide Hospitall) to the
Gailes of Newgate, and Ludgate, for reliefe of the prisoners, and
this may suffice for Newgate.
Ludgate in the West is the next, and is called Ludgate as
first builded (saith Geffrey Monmouth) by King Lud a Briton,
about the yeare before Christes natiuitie 66 Of which building,
and also of the name, as Ludsgate, or Fluds gate, hath béene of
late some question amongst the learned, wherefore I ouer passe it,
as not to my purpose, onely referring the reader to that I haue
before written, out of Cesars commentaries, and other Romaine
writers concerning a towne or Cittie amongst the Britaines.
This gate I suppose to be one of the most auncient: and as Ald-
gate
was builded for the East, so was this Luds gate for the west.
I reade as I tolde you that in the yeare 1215. The 17. of King
Iohn
the Barons of the Realme, being in armes against the King
entred this Citie, and spoyled the Iewes houses, to fill their owne
purses which being done, Robert Fitzwater, and Geffrey de
Magna villa
Earle of Essex, and the Earle of Gloucester chiefe
leaders of the Army, applyed all diligence to repayre the gates and
walles of this Citie, with the stones of the Iewes broken houses,
especially (as it séemeth) they then repayred or rather new builded
Ludgate.
Ludgate new
builded.
For in the yeare 1586. when the same gate was ta-
ken down to be newe builded, there was found couched within the
wall thereof, a stone taken from one of the Iewes houses, where-
in was ingrauen in Hebrewe Caracters these wordes following,
הך מצב הר משה בן הרב ר יצחק
Iewes houses
spoiled.
Hæc est statio Rabbi
Moses
, This text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on guesswork. (SM)fillj3 insignis Rabbi Isaac
: which is to say, this is the Sta-
tion, or Ward of Rabby Moses, the sonne of the honorable Rab-
by Isaac
, and had béene fixed vppon the front of one of the Iewes
houses

Gates of this Citie.
33
houses as a note, or signe that such a one dwelled there. In the
yeare 1260. this Ludgate was repaired and beautified with ima-
ges of Lud and other Kinges, as appeareth by letters pattents
Patent.
in
the Tower, of licence giuen to the cittizens of London, to take vp
stone for the making of those images, dated the 45. of Henry the
third
. These images of Kinges in the raigne of Edward the ſixt
had their heads smitten off, and were otherwise defaced, by vnad-
uised folkes, and in the raigne of Quéene Marie were repayred, as
by setting new heads on their old bodies, &c. All which so remay-
ned vntil the year 1586.
Ludgate again
new builded.
The 28. of Quéen Elizabeth , when the
same gate being sore decayed was clean taken down, the prisoners
in the meane time remayning in the large Southeast quadrant to
the same Gate adioyning, and the same yeare, the whole gate was
newly and beautifully builded with the images of Lud, & others,
as afore, on the East side, and the picture of her Maiestie,
Ludgate in-
larged in the
raigne of H.
the ſixt
. 4
Quéene
Eilzabeth
on the West side.
Al which was done at the common charges of The special character yͤ (LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH LATIN SMALL LETTER E ABOVE) does not display on all browsers and has been replaced by its simplified form.ye cittizens, amoū-
ting to 1500. £. or more.
Ludgate a free
prison.
This gate was made a frée prison in
the yeare 1378. the firſt of Richard the ſecond
Record Guild.
hall
.
, Nicholas Brem-
bar
being Mayor. The same was confirmed in the yeare 1382.
Iohn Northampton being Mayor, by a common counsaile in the
Guild hall: by which it was ordayned that all frée men of this
Cittie should for debt, trespasses, accomptes, and contempts, bee
imprisoned in Ludgate, and for treasons, fellonies, and other cri-
minall offences be committed to Newgate. &c. In the yeare 1439
the tenth of King Henry the ſixt5, Iohn Welles being Mayor, &
court of common counsaile established ordinanances, (as William
Standon
& Robert Chicheley, late Maiors before had done) tou-
ching the garde and gouernment of Ludgate, and other prisons.
Also in the yeare 1463. the third of Edward the fourth, Ma-
thew Philip
being Mayor, in a common counsaile, at the request
of the well disposed, blessed, and deuout woman, Dame Agnes For-
ster
, widow, late wife to Stephen Forster Fishemonger, some-
time Mayor, for the comfort and reliefe of all the poore prisoners,
certaine Articles were established. Inprimis, that the new works
then late edified by the same Dame Agnes, for the inlarging of
the prison of Ludgate, from thenceforth should be had and taken,
D
as
D

34
Gates of this Citie.
as a parte and parcell of the saide prison of Ludgate, so that both
the olde and new worke of Ludgate aforesaid, be one prison, gaile,
kéeping, and charge for euermore.
The saide Quadrant strongly builded of stone, by the before
named Stephen Forster, and Agnes his wife, contayneth a large
walking place by grounde, the like roome it hath ouer it for lodg-
ings, and ouer all a fayre leades to walke vpon, well imbattayled,
all for ease of prisoners, to the end they shoulde haue lodging and
water frée without charge: as by certaine verses grauen in Cop-
per, & fixed on the said Quadrant, I haue read in forme following.
Old verses on
Ludgate.

Deuout soules that passe this way,
for Stephen Forster late Mayor, hartely pray,
And Dame Agnes his spouse, to God consecrate,
that of pitty this house made for Lōdoners in Ludgate.
So that for lodging and water prisoners here nought pay,
as their keepers shal answere at dreadfull domes day.

This plate, and one other of his Armes, taken downe with
the old gate, I caused to be fixed ouer the entrie of the said Quadrant,
but the verses being vnhappily turned inward to the wall, the like
in effect is grauen outwarde in prose, declaring him to bee a Fish-
monger, because some vpon a light occasion (as a maydens heade
in a glasse window) had fabuled him to bee a Mercer, and to haue
begged there at Ludgate, &c. Thus much for Ludgate.
Next this, is there a breach in the wal of the Citie,
A breach in
the wal against
Bridewell.
and a bridge
of timber ouer the Fleet dike, betwixt Fléet-bridge and Thames,
directly ouer against the house of Bridewel.
Of the water gates of name, on the banke of the riuer of
Thames. The first from the West towardes the East, is called
Ripa Reginæ, the Quéens bank, or Quéene Hith,
Watergates
Queenes hith
which may wel
be accounted a water gate, & the very chief of this citie, being a com-
mon strand or landing place, yet equal with, & of old time as far ex-
celling Belins gate, as shalbe shewed in the ward of Quéene Hith.
The next is Downe gate, so called (as may be supposed) of the
sodaine descending, or downe going of that way from S. Iohns
Church vpon Walbrooke
vnto the Riuer of Thames, whereby
the water in the channell there hath such aswift course, that in the
yeare

Gates of this Citie.
35
yeare 1574. on the fourth of September after a strong shower of
rayne, a lad (of the age of 18. yeares)
A lad of 18.
yeares old.
drowned in a
channell at
downegate.
minding to haue leapt ouer
the channell, was taken by the féete and borne downe with the vi-
olence of that narrow streame, and carryed towarde the Thames
with such a violent swiftnesse, as no man could rescue or stay him,
till he came against a cart whéele, that stood in the water gate, be-
fore which time he was drowned, and starke dead.
This was sometime a large water gate, frequented of shippes
and other vessels, like as the Quéene Hith, and was a part there-
of, as doth appeare by an Inquisition made in the 28. yeare of
Henry the third
, wherein was founde, that aswell corne as fish
and all other things comming to the Port of Downe gate, were
to bee ordered after the customes of the Quéenes Hith, for the
kings vse, as also that the corne arriuing betwéene the gate of the
Guildhall of the Marchants of Cullen: the (Styleyarde) which is
East from Downe gate, and the house then pertayning to the
Archbishoppe of Canterbury, West from Baynards castle, was
to be measured by the measure and measurer of the Quéenes soke,
or Quéene Hith.
Marchants of
the Haunce,
landed their
corne betwixt
their house, &
the Black friers
I reade also in the 19. of Edward the thirde,
that customes were then to be payde for shippes and other vessels
resting at Downe gate, as if they roade at Quéene Hith, and as
they now doe a Belingsgate. And thus much for Downe gate
may suffice.
The next after Downgate (of old time) was called Wolses gate
Wolses gate in
the Roperie.
Liber Horn
Liber S, Albon
in the reperie in the parish of Alhallowes the lesse, of later time
called Wolses lane, but now out of vse: for the lower parte was
builded on by the Earle of Shrewsburie, and the other part was
stopped vp, and builded on by the Chamberlaine of London.
The next is Ebgate,
Ebgate
Liber trinitate,
Liber S, Albon
Record E. the 3
.
a Watergate, so called of old time, as ap-
peareth by diuers records of tenements néere vnto the same adioy-
ning. It standeth neare vnto the Church of S. Laurence Pount-
ney
, but is within the parish of S. Marten Ordegare. In place
of this gate is now a narrow passage to the Thames, and is called
Ebgate lane, but more commonly the Old Swanne.
Then is there a water gate at the Bridge foote, called Oyster
gate
, of Oysters that were there of old time commonly to be sold,
and was the chiefest market for them, and for other shell fishes
D2
There
D2

36
Gates of this Citie.
There standeth now an engine, or forcier, for the winding vp of
ter 6 to serue the citie, whereof I haue already spoken.
The next is the Bridge gate, so called of London Bridge
whereon it standeth: This is one of the foure first and principall
gates of the citie, and was long before the conquest, when there
stood a Bridge of timber: which Gate being weakely made, when
the bridge was builded of stone, hath béene often times since repay-
red. This gate with the Tower vpon it, in the 1436. fell down, &
two of the farthest Arches Southwards also fell therewith, and
no man perished or was hurt therewith. To the repayring where-
of, diuers welthy cittizens gaue large summes of money, namely
Robert Large, sometime Mayor, gaue to that work 100.marks,
Stephen Forster 20. l. S. Iohn Crosby Alderman 100. l. &c.
But in the yeare 1471.
W. Dunthorne
the Kentish Mariners vnder the conduct
of Bastard Fauconbridge, burned the said Gate, and xiij. honses 7
on the Bridge, besides the Béere houses at S. Katherines, and
many other in the suburbes.
The next is Buttolphes gate,
Buttolphes
gate.
so called of the parish Church
of S. Buttolph
néere adioyning. This gate was sometime giuen,
or confirmed by William Conqueror, to the Monkes of West-
minster
in these wordes: W. Rex Angliæ &c. William King
of England, sendeth gréeting to the Sheriffes & all his ministers,
as also to all his louing subiects, French and English of London,
Know ye that I haue granted to God, and S. Peter of Westmin-
ster
, & to the Abbot Vitalis, the gift which Almundus of the port
of S. Buttolph gaue them, when he was there made Monke: that
is to say, his Lords court with the houses, and one Wharfe, which
is at the head of London bridge, and all other his landes which he
had in the same citie, in such sort as King Edward more benefici-
ally, and amply granted the same: and I will and command, that
they shall inioy the same well and quietly and honourably with-
sake, and soke &c.
The next is Belingsgate nowe vsed as an especiall Porte or
harborow, for small shippes and boates comming thereto, and is
now the largest water gate on the Riuer of Thames, and there-
fore most frequented, the Quéenes Hith being almost forsaken.
Now this Gate tooke that name, or of what antiquity the same is,
I

Towers and Castels.
37
must leaue vncertaine, as not hauing read any auncient recorde
thereof, more then that Geffrey Monmouth writeth, that Belin
a King of the Britans, about 400. yeares before Christes nati-
uitie builded this gate, and named it Belins gate, after his owne
calling: and that when he was dead, his bodie being burned, the
ashes in a vessell of brasse, were set vpon a high pinacle of stone o-
uer the same Gate. But Cesar, and other the Romaine writers,
affirme of citties, walles, and gates, as ye haue before heard, and
therefore it séemeth to me not to be so auncient, but rather to haue
taken that name of some later owner of the place, happily named
Belin, as Somars Key, Smarts Key, Froth wharfe, and others
thereby tooke their names of their owners: of this gate more shall
be saide when we come to Belins Gate warde.
Then haue you a Water gate on the West side of Woolle
wharfe
, or Customers Key, which is now of late most beautifully
enlarged and built, This gate is commonly called the Water-
gate
, as being at the South end of Water lane.
One other Water gate there is by the Bulwark of the Tow-
er
,
Watergate by
the Tower.
and this is the last and farthest water gate Eastward, on the
Riuer of Thames, so farre as the cittie of London extendeth with-
in the walles: both which last named water gates bee within the
Tower ward.
Besides these common Water gates were diuers priuate
wharfes and Keyes
Wharfes and
Keyes.
all along from the East to the West of this
Cittie, on the banke of the Riuer of Thames: Marchants of all
nations had landing places, Ware houses, sellers and stowage of
their goodes and marchandises, as partly shall bee touched in the
Wardes adioyning to the said Riuer, and therefore concerning
Gates let this suffice.

Notes

  1. Unclear. (SM)
  2. Underinking. (SM)
  3. Underinking. (SM)
  4. When referring to Henry VI’s reign, Stow ignores his brief reinstatement as king from Sep.-Oct. 1470 to April 1471. (SM)
  5. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here. 1439 is in the 17/18th years of Henry VI’s reign. (SM)
  6. I.e. water. (SM)
  7. I.e. houses. (SM)

References

Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London: Gates. The Map of Early Modern London, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 26 Jun. 2020, mapoflondon.uvic.ca/stow_1598_gates.htm.

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London: Gates. The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 26, 2020. https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/stow_1598_gates.htm.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz-Stephen, W. 2020. Survey of London: Gates. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London. Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/stow_1598_gates.htm.

RIS file (for RefMan, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

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A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz-Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London: Gates
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
PY  - 2020
DA  - 2020/06/26
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/stow_1598_gates.htm
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/xml/standalone/stow_1598_gates.xml
ER  - 

RefWorks

RT Web Page
SR Electronic(1)
A1 Stow, John
A1 fitz-Stephen, William
A6 Jenstad, Janelle
T1 Survey of London: Gates
T2 The Map of Early Modern London
WP 2020
FD 2020/06/26
RD 2020/06/26
PP Victoria
PB University of Victoria
LA English
OL English
LK https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/stow_1598_gates.htm

TEI citation

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