Survey of London: Towers and Castles

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Of Towers and Castels.
THe Citie of London (saith Fitzstephens)
hath in the East a very great & a most strong
Palatine Tower,The Tower oThis text has been supplied. Reason: The facsimile photograph does not include the whole surface. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (SM)f1
whose turrets and walles
do rise from a deep foundation, the mor-
ter thereof being tempered with the blood
of beastes. In the west parte are two most

Towers and Castels.
strong Castels &c. To beginne therefore with the most famous
Tower of London, situate in the East, neere vnto the Riuer of
Thames, it hath béene the common opinion: and some hane2
written (but of none assured ground) that Iulius Cesar, the first
Conqueror of the Britaines, was the originall Author, and foun-
der aswell thereof, as also of many other Towers, castles, and
great buildings within this Realme: but (as I haue alreadie be-
fore noted) Cesar remayned not here so long, nor had hee in his
head any such matter,
In my Annals.
but onely to dispatch a conquest of this bar-
barous countrey, and to procéede to greater matters. Neyther do
the Romaine writers make mention of any such buildings erected
by him here. And therefore leauing this, and procéeding to more
grounded authoritie, I find in a fayre register booke, of the actes
of the Bishops of Rochester, set downe by Edmond of Haden-
, that William the first (surnamed Conquerour) builded the
Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square Tower,
there, about the yeare of Christ 1078. appointing Gundulph,
then Bishop of Rochester, to be principall surueyer and ouersée-
er3 of that worke, who was for that time lodged in the house of
Edmere a Burgesse of London, the very wordes of which mine
Author are these. Gundulphus Episcopus mandato Willielmi
Regis magni præfuit operi magnæ Turris London. quo tem-
pore hospitatus est apud quendā Edmerum Burgensem Lon-
. qui dedit vnum were Ecclesiæ Rofen
This was the great
square Tower, which was then builded, and hath béene since, at
diuers times inlarged with other buildings adioyning, as shall be
shewed hereafter.
Mathew Paris
I. London,

Castle by the
Tower build-
This Tower was by tempest of wind sore sha-
ken in the yeare 1090. the fourth of William Rufus , and was a-
gaine by the said Rufus and Henry the first repayred. They also
caused a castle to be builded vnder the said Tower, to wéete, on the
South side towardes the Thames.
Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Earle of Essex
were foure of the first Constables of this Tower of London, by
succession: all which held by force a portion of lande (that pertay-
ned to the Priorie of the holie Trinitie within Aldgate) that is to
say, East Smithfield,
a Vineyarde.
néere vnto the Tower, making there-
of a Uyneyarde, and woulde not depart from it, till the ſeconde

Towers and Castels.
yeare of King Stephen , when the same was adiudged and restored
to the said Church.
Ex. ChartThis text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on an external source. (SM)a.
This Geffrey Magnauille was Earle of
Essex, Constable of the Tower, Sheriffe of London,
Geffrey Mag-
na Ville
, Earle
of Essex, Con-
stable of the
Tower and
Sheriffe of
, and Hertford shires, as appeareth by a Charter of Maud
the Empresse
, dated 1141. He also fortified the Tower of Lon-
against King Stephen, but the King tooke him in his court
at S. Albons, and would not deliuer him till hee had rendred the
Tower of London, with the Castels of Walden, and Pleshey in
Essex. About the yeare 1190. the ſecond of Richard the firſt,
William Longshampe Bishop of Elie, Chauncellor of England,
for cause of dissention betwixt him and Earle Iohn
Iohn Beuer.
the Kings bro-
ther, that was rebell, inclosed the Tower,
The Tower of
passed about
with a wall &
a ditch.
and castle of London,
with an outward wall of stone imbattailed, and also caused a déepe
ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as I haue said before) to
haue enuironed it with the Riuer of Thames. By the making of
this ditch in Eastsmithfield, the Church of the holy Trinitie in
London lost halfe a marke rent by the yeare, & the Mill was re-
moued that belonged to the poore brethren of the Hospitall of S.
S. Katherines
mill stood
where now is
the Iron gate
of the Tower.
and to the Church of the Trinitie aforesaid, which
was no small losse and discommoditie to eyther part, and the gar-
den which the King had hyred of the brethren for sixe markes the
yeare, for the most part was wasted and marred by the ditch. Re-
compence was often promised, but neuer performed, vntill King
comming after, gaue to the brethren fiue markes and a
half for that part which the ditch had deuoured: and the other part
thereof without, he yeelded to them againe, which they hold: and
of the said rent of fiue markes and a halfe they haue a déed, by ver-
tue whereof, they are well paid vntill this day.
About the yeare 1239. King Henry the third caused the To-
wer of London
to be fortified with bulwarkes,
without the
Tower build-
which after they
were builded fell downe, and therefore he caused it to be reedified
more strongly, to his cost of more then twelue thousand markes.
In the yeare 1274. King Edward the first commaunded the
Treasurer and Chamberlaine of his Exchequer, to deliuer out of
his Treasorie, vnto Giles of Andwarp 200.
Record. Tower.
Ditch about
the Towerres

markes, of the fines,
taken of diuers Marchants, or vsurers of London, towardes the
worke of the ditch about the Tower of London.

Of Towers and Castels.
Edward the fourth fortified this Tower, and made if strong.
And in the yeare 1532. King Henry the eight repayred the
whyte Tower.
Tower repay-
red by Henry
the eight
Thus much for the foundation and building, in-
crease and maintenance of this Tower. Now somewhat of acci-
dents in the same.
In the year 1196.
Actions of the
William Fitzosbart, a cittizen of London
seditiously mouing the common people to séeke libertie, and not to
be subiect to the rich,
Iustices sate in
the Tower of
and more mighty, at length was taken and
brought before the Archbishoppe of Canterburie in the Tower,
where he was by the iudges condemned, had iudgement, and was
by the héeles drawne thence to the Ealmes in Smithfield, and
there hanged.
In the yeare 1220. all the Plées belonging to the crowne,
were holden in the Tower:
Plees of the
Crowne plea-
ded in the
and likewise in the yeare 1224. &c.
In the yeare 1222. the cittizens of London hauing made a
tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burgh,
chiefe Iustice of England, came to the Tower of London, called
before him the Mayor and Aldermen, of whom he enquired for the
principall authors of that sedition: amongst whome one named
Constantine Fitz Aelulfe auowed, that hee was the man, and
had done much lesse then he ought to haue done: Wherevpon the
Iustice sent him with two other to Falks de Brent, who with ar-
med men, brought him to the gallowes, and there hanged him &
other twaine.
In the yeare 1244. Griffith
Griffith of
fel from
the Tower.
the eldest sonne of Leoline, prince
of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, deuised meanes of es-
cape, and hauing in the night made of the hangings, shéetes, &c.
a long line, he put himselfe downe from the toppe of the Tower,
but in the slyding, the weight of his body, (being a very bigge and
a fatte man) brake the rope, and he fell and brake his necke with-
In the yeare 1253. King Henry the thirde, imprisoned the
Sheriffes of London in the Tower,
Sheriffes of
London priso-
ners in the
more then a moneth, for the
escape of a prisoner out of Newgate.
In the yeare 1260. King Henry
K. Henry land-
ed in the To-
, and held
his Parliament
with his Quéene (for seare
of the Barons) were lodged in this Tower. The next yeare hee
sent for his Lords, and held his parliament there.

Towers and Castels.
In the yeare 1263. when the Quéene would haue remoued
from the Tower by water, towards VVindsore, sundry Londo-
ners got them together to the bridge, vnder the which she was to
passe, and not onely cryed out vpon her with reprochfull wordes,
but also threw myre & stones at her, by which she was constrained
to returne for the time, but in The special character yͤ (LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH LATIN SMALL LETTER E ABOVE) does not display on all browsers and has been replaced by its simplified year 1265. the said Citizens were
faine to submit themselues to the king for it, and the Mayor, Alder-
men, & Sheriffes were sent to diuers prisons, & a Custos also was
set ouer the Citie, to wit, Othon Constable of the Tower, &c.
In the yeare 1282. Leoline Prince of VVales
Leoline prince
of Wales his
head set on
the Tower.
being taken
at Blewth Castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir
Roger Mortimer
caused to be crowned with Iuie, and set it vp-
on the Tower.
In the yeare 1290. diuers Iustices aswell of the Bench,
Iustices of the
Bench sent to
the Tower.
of the assyses, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with
great sommes of money redéemed their libertie.
In the yeare 1320. the Kinges Iustices sate in the To-
Iustices sate in
the Tower.
for tryall of matters, wherevpon Iohn Gifors late Mayor
of London, and many other fled the Citie for feare of things they
had presumptuously done.
In the yeare 1321. the Mortimers yéelding themselues to the
King, he sent them prisoners to the Tower, where they remayned
long, and were adiudged to be drawne and hanged. But at length
Roger Mortimer
made an e-
scape out of
the Tower.
Citizēs of Lō-
wrested The special character yͤ (LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH LATIN SMALL LETTER E ABOVE) does not display on all browsers and has been replaced by its simplified
keyes of the
Tower from
the Constable.
drawne from
the Tower to
the Elmes, &
of Wigmore by giuing to his kéepers a sléepie
drinke, escaped out of the Tower, and his vncle Roger being still
kept there died about fiue yeares after.
In the year 1326. the Citizens of London wrested The special character yͤ (LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH LATIN SMALL LETTER E ABOVE) does not display on all browsers and has been replaced by its simplified keyes of The special character yͤ (LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH LATIN SMALL LETTER E ABOVE) does not display on all browsers and has been replaced by its simplified
Tower out of the Constables hands, & deliuered all the prisoners.
In the yeare 1330. Roger Mortimer Earle of March was
taken and bronght4 to the Tower, from whence hee was drawne
to the Elmes and there hanged.
In the yeare 1344. King Edward the third commaunded Flo-
of gold to be made and coyned in the Tower, that is to say,
a penie péece of the value of sixe shillinges and eyght pence, the half
penie piece, of
A Mint in the
Tower: Florē-
ces of gold coi-
ned there.
the value of iij.SMALL LATIN LETTER S WITH TILDE ABOVE; ABBREVIATION FOR SHILLINGs. and iiij. ď. and a farthing péece
worth 20. pence Perciuall de Porte of Luke being then Maister
of the coyne. And this is the first coyning of Gold in the Tower,

Towers and Castels.
whereof I haue read, & also the first coyning of Gold in England:
for (that I may a little digresse by occasion hereof) I find that in
times before passed,
Argent, and
Pecunia after
called Estar-
all great sommes were paid by wayght of gold
or siluer, as so many pounds or marks of siluer, or so many pounds
or markes of Gold, as I could proue by many good authorities,
which I ouerpasse. The smaller sommes also were paide in star-
lings, which were pence, so called, for other coynes they had none.
The antiquitie of this starling penie vsuall in this Realme, is from
the raign of Henry the ſecond: notwithstanding, the Saxon coines
before the conquest were pence of fine siluer full the weight, and
somewhat better then the latter starlings, as I haue tryed by con-
ference of the pence of Burghrede king of Mercia, Aelfred, Ed-
, and Edelrod, kings of the West Saxons, Plegmond Arch-
bishop of Canterburie, and others. William the Conquerours
W. Conqueror
Weare no
W. Malmsbery
penie also was fine siluer of the weight of the Easterling, and had
on the one side stamped an armed heade, with a beardles face,
(for the Normans did weare no beardes) with a scepter in his
hand: the inscription in the circumference was this, Le Rei Wilā
on the other side a Crosse double to the ring, betwéene foure row-
als of sixe pointes.
King Henrie the first his pennie was of the like weight, fine-
nes, forme of face, crosse &c.
This Henrie in the eight year of his raigne, ordayned the peny
which was round, so to bee quartered, by the crosse, that they
might easily bee broken, into halfe pence and farthinges. In the
firſt, ſecond, thirde, fourth, and fift of king Richard the firſt his
, and afterwardes I find commonly Esterling mony menti-
oned, and yet oft times the same is called argent as afore, and not
The first great summe that I read of to be paid in Esterlinges,
was in the fift of Richard the firſt, when Robert Earle of Ley-
being prisoner in France, proffered for his ransome a thou-
sand markes Esterlinges, notwithstanding the Esterling pence
were long before. The weight of the Esterling pennie
VVeight of
starling penie
32. graines of
may ap-
peare by diuers statutes, namely of weights and measures, made
in the 51. of Henry the third in these words. Thirtie two graines
of Wheat, drie and round, taken in the midst of the eare, should

Towers and Castels.
be the weight of a starling penie, 20. of those pence shoulde waye
one ounce, 12. ownces a pound Troy. It followeth in the statute
eight pound to make a gallon of Wine, and eight gallons a bushell
of London measure; &c. Notwithstanding which Statute, I
find in the eight of Edward the firſt, Gregorie Rokefley Mayor
of London, being chiefe Maister or minister of the kinges Ex-
chaunge, or mintes, a new coyne being then appointed, the pound
of Esterling money should contayne as afore 12. ownces, to wit,
fine siluer, such as was then made into foyle, and was commonly
called siluer of Guthurons lane, 11. ounces, two Estarlings, and
one ferling or farthing, and the other 17. pence ob. q. to bee lay.
Also the pound of money ought to weygh xx.SMALL LATIN LETTER S WITH TILDE ABOVE; ABBREVIATION FOR SHILLINGs.iij.ď. by accompt,
by accompt, the ounce to weigh twenty pence, the penny weyght,
24. graynes (which 24. by weight then appointed, were as
much as the former 32. graynes of weight) a pennie force, 25.
graynes and a halfe, the pennie deble, or féeble 22. graines and a
halfe &c.
Now for the pennie Esterling how it tooke that name, I think
good briefly to touch.
The penie E-
sterling how it
tooke the
It hath béene said that Numa Pompilius
the second King of the Romaines commanded money first to bee
made, of whose name they were called Numi, and when Copper
pence, siluer pence, and gold pence were made, because euery sil-
uer pennie was worth ten Copper pence, and euery Gold pennie
worth ten siluer pence, the pence therefore were called in Latine
Denarij, and oftentimes the pence are named of the matter and
stuffe of Gold or siluer. But the money of England was called of
the workers and makers thereof: as the Floren of gold is called
of the Florentines, that were the workers thereof: and so the
Esterling pence tooke their name of the Esterlinges, which did
first make this mony in England in the raign of Henry the ſecond.
Thus haue I set downe according to my small reading in anti-
quitie: these money matters, omitting the imaginations
Starling mo-
ney when it
tooke begin-
ning in this
of late
writers, of whom some haue saide Esterling money to take that
name of a starre, stamped in the border, or ring of the pennie: o-
ther some of a birde called a Stare or starling stamped in the cir-
cumference: and other (more vnlikely) of being coyned at Siri

Towers and Castels.
uelin or Starling, a towne in Scotland. &c.
Now concerning halfe pence, and Farthinges,
Of halfepence
ond farthings.
the account of
which is more subtiller then the pence, I neede not speake of them
more, then that they were onely made in the Exchange at Lon-
, and no where else. The kinges Exchaunge at London,
was neare vnto the Cathedrall Church of S. Paule, and is to this
day commonly called the old Chaunge, but in Euidences the old
The kings Exchaunger, in this place, was to deliuer out to e-
uery other Exchaunger, throughout England, or other the kinges
Dominions, their Coyning irons, that is to say, one Standerde,
or Staple, and two Trussels, or Punchons: and when the same
were spent and woorne, to receiue them with an accounte, what
summe had
Mints in Eng-
beene coyned, and also their Pix, or Boxe of assay and
to deliuer other Irons new grauen, &c. I finde that in the 9. of
king Iohn
patent 9. Iohn
there was besides the Mint at London, other Mints,
at Winchester, Excester, Chicester, Canterbury, Rochester,
Ipswitch, Norwitch, Lenn, Lincolne, Yorke, Carlell, North-
hampton, Oxforde, S. Edmondsbury
, and Durham. The Ex-
changer, Examiner, and Tryer, buyeth the siluer, for Coynage:
aunswering for euery 100.£. of siluer, bought in Bolion, or
of Coine.
In the yeare 1351. William Edington Bishop of Winche-
, and Treasurer
Thomas VVal-
. First groates
and halfe
of Englande, a wise man, but louing the
kinges commodity, more then the wealth of the whole Realme,
& common people, (saith mine Author) caused a new coine, called a
groate, and a halfe groate, to be coyned and stamped, the groate
to be taken for iiij.ď. and the halfe groate for ij.ď.not conteyning
in weight according to the pence called Easterlinges, but much
lesse, to wit by v.SMALL LATIN LETTER S WITH TILDE ABOVE; ABBREVIATION FOR SHILLINGs. in the pounde: by reason whereof, victuailes,
and marchandizes became the dearer, through the whole Realme.
Aboute the same time also, the olde coine of golde, was changed in-
to a new, but the old noble (then so called) was worth much aboue
the taxed rate of the new, and therefore
Coines of gold
the Marchantes iugrossed5
vp the olde, and conueyed them out of the Realme to the greate
losse of the kingdome. Wherefore a remedy was prouided by
chaunging of the stampe.

Towers and Castels.
In the yeare 1464. king Edwarde the 4. caused a new Coine
both of golde and siluer to bee made, whereby he gained much:
For he made of an olde Noble a Royal,
Coines of
and also raised
in valew, Rose,
which he commanded to
go for x.SMALL LATIN LETTER S WITH TILDE ABOVE; ABBREVIATION FOR SHILLINGs. Neuerthelesse to the same Royal was put 8.ď. of Alay,
and so weighed the more, being smitten, with a new stamp, to wit
a Rose. He likewise made halfe Angels of 5.SMALL LATIN LETTER S WITH TILDE ABOVE; ABBREVIATION FOR SHILLINGs. and Farthings, of
siluer monies of 3.ď. a groate, and so of other Coynes after that
rate, to the greate harme of the commons. William Lorde Ha-
being Maister of the kinges Mintes.
Thus much for Mint and coynage in and by occasion of this
Tower, where the chiefe coining hath long continued, vnder cor-
rection of other more skilful may suffice : and now to other acci-
dents here.
In the yeare 1360. the Peace betweene England
French king
Prisoner in the
and France,
being confirmed, King Edwarde came ouer into England, and
straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner there,
whose ransome hee assessed at three millions of Florences, and so
deliuered him from Prison, and brought him with honor to the
In the yere 1381. the Rebels of Kent,
Rebels of Kent
enter the
drew out of the Tow-
er (where the king was then loged,) Simon Sudbery, Archbishop
of Canterbury, Lorde Chauncelor: Robart Hales Prior of S.
, and Treasurer of Englande: William Appleton Frier,
the kinges confessor, and Iohn Legge a Sargiant of the kinges,
and beheaded them on the Tower hill. &c.
In the yeare 1387. king Richard
Richard the
. prisoner in
the Tower.
held his feast of Christmas
in the Tower. And in the yeare 1399. the same king was sent
prisoner to the Tower.
In the yeare 1414. Sir Iohn Oldecastle brake out of the
Tower. And the same yeare a Parliament being holden at Lei-
, a Porter of the Tower was drawn, hanged and headed,
whose heade was sent vp, and set ouer the Tower gate, for con-
senting to one Whitlooke, that brake out of the Towre.
In the yeare 1419. Fryer Randulph was sent to the Tow-
, and was there slaine by the Parson of S. Peters in the Tower.
In the yeare 1465. king Henry the 6. was⎜brought priso-

Towers and Castels.
ner to the Tower, where he remained long. In the yeare, 1470.
the Tower was yeelded to the Maior of London, and his
Brethren the Aldermen, who forthwith entered the same, and
deliuered king Henry, but the next yeare hee was againe sent
thether, and there murthered.
In the yeare, 1478. George Duke of Clarence was drow-
ned in the Tower: and within 5. yeares after king Edwarde the
. with his brother were murdered in the Tower.
King Henry
the 6
. murdred
in the Tower
In the yere,
1502. Queene Elizabeth wife of Henry, the 7. died of childebirth
in the Tower. In the yeare 1512. the Chappell in the high
white Tower was burned. In the yeare 1536.
King Edward
the 5
. murde-
red in the tow
Queene Anne
was beheaded in the Tower. In the yeare 1541.
Lady Katheren Howarde wife to king Henry the 8. was also
beheaded there.
Thus much for these accidentes: and now to conclude thereof
in summarie. This Tower
Vse of the
is a citadell, to defend or commande
the Citie: A royall palace for assemblies, and treaties. A prison
of Estate, for the most daungerous offendors: The onely place of
coinage for all Englande at this present. The Armorie for war-
like prouision. The Treasurie of the ornamentes and Iewels, of
the Crowne, and generall conseruer of the most auncient Re-
cordes of the kinges Courtes of iustice at Westminster.
The next Tower on the riuer of Thames, is on London bridge
at the North ende of the draw bridge.
Tower at the
north end of
the draw bridg
This Tower was
new begun to be builded in the yeare, 1426. Iohn Reynwell
Maior of London, laide one of the first corner stones, in the foun-
dation of this worke, the other three were laide by the Shiriffes,
and Bridgemaisters, vpon euery of these foure stones was engra-
uen in fayre Romaine letters, the name of Ihesus. And these
stones, I haue seene laide in the Bridge store house, since they
were taken vp, when that Tower was of late newly made of
timber. This gate and Tower was at the first stronglie builded vp
of stone, and so continued vntill the yere 1577. in the Moneth of
, when the same stone Arched gate, and Tower being de-
cayed was begunne to bee taken downe, and then were the heads
of the Traytors remoued thence, and set on the Tower ouer the
gate at the bridge foote, towardes Southwarke. This saide Tow-

Towers and Castels.
being taken downe a new foundation was drawne : and Sir
Iohn Langley
Lord Maior layed the first stone in the presence of
the Shiriffes, and Bridge maisters, on the 28. of Auguſt , and in
the Moneth of September, the yeare 1579. the same Tow-
er was finished a beutiful and chargeable peece of worke, all aboue
the bridge being of timber.
An other Towre there is on London bridge, to wit, ouer
the gate at the South ende of the same bridge
Tower at the
south ende of
the bridge.
towardes South-
. This gate with the Tower thereupon, and two Arches
of the Bridge fell downe, and no man perished by the fall thereof
in the yere, 1436.
The south gate
on London
Towards the new building whereof, diuers, cha-
ritable Citizens gaue large summes of money: which gate being
then again new builded, was in the yere 1471. burned by the Mar
riners and Saylors of Kent, Bastarde Fauconbridge, being theyr
In the west part of this citie, (saith Fitzstephen) are two most
strong castels &c. Also Garuasius Tilbery, in the raigne of Hen-
the ſecond
, writing of these castles, hath to this effect. Two
Castles (saith hee, are built with walles and rampires, wher-
of one, is in right of succession, Baynardes
: the other the Ba-
rons of Mountfitchet: the first of these castles bankying on the
riuer Thames, was called Baynardes Castle, of Baynarde, a
noble man that came in with the Conqueror, and then builded
it and deceased in the yeare of the raigne of William Rufus 6 after
whose decease Geffery Baynarde succeeded, and then William
, in the yeare 1111. who by forfeyture for felony, lost
his Barony, of little Dunmow and king Henry gaue if wholy to
Robart Fitz Richard the Sonne of Gilbarte Earle of Clare,
and to his heires together with the honor of Baynardes castell.
This Robart married Maude de Sent Licio, Lady of Bradham
and deceased 1134. was buried at S. Nedes, by Richarde
Earle of Clare, his Father. VValter, his sonne succeeded him,
hee tooke to⎜wife Matilde de Becham, and after her decease
Matilde de Lucy, on whome he begat Robarte and other, hee
deceased in the yeare 1198. and was buried at Dunmow after
whome succeeded Robart Fitzwater a valiant knight.
Aboute the yeare 1213. there arose a greate discorde be-
twixt king Iohn, and his Barons, because of Matilde,
Liber DunmThis text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on guesswork. (SM)ow7.

Towers and Castels.
med the fayre daughter, to the sayde Roberte Fitzwater, whome
the king vnlawfully loued, but could not obtayne her, nor her fa-
ther woulde consent thereunto, whereupon (and for other like cau-
ses) ensued warre throughout the whole Realme. The Barons
were receiued into London, where they greatly indamaged the
king, but in the end the king did not onely, (therefore) bannish the
said Fitzwater
Robert Fitzwa
(amongst other), out of the Realme: but also cau-
sed his Castle called Baynarde,
and other his houses to be spoiled,
which thing being done Matilde, the fayre, a Messenger being
sent vnto her,
Virginity de-
fended with
the losse of
worldly goods
and life of the
bodie, for life
of the soule
aboute the kinges suite, whereunto shee would not
consent, was poisoned. Robert Fitzwater, and some other being
then passed into France, and some other into Scotland. &c.
It happened in the yere 1214. king Iohn being then in France
with a greate Armie, that a truce was taken beewixt the two
kinges of England and France, for the terme of 5. yeares, and a
riuer or arme of the sea being then betwixt eyther Host. There
was a knight in the English host, that cried to them of the other
side, willing some one of their knightes to come and iust a course
or twaine with him, whereupon without stay Robert Fitzwater
being on the French parte, made himselfe readie, ferried ouer, and
got on horsebacke, without any man to helpe him, and shewed
himselfe ready to the face of his challenger, whome at the first
course, he stroake so harde with his greate Speare, that horse and
man fell to the grounde, and when his speare was broken, hee
went backe againe to the king of France, which when the king
King Iohns
had seene, by Gods tooth (quoth hee) after his vsuall oath, hee
were a king indeede, that had such a knight: the frendes of Robert
hearing these words, kneeled downe and saide: O King hee is
your knight: it is Robert Fitzwater, and thereupon the next day
he was sent for, and restored to the kinges fauour : by which
meanes peace was concluded, and he receiued his liuinges, and had
licence to repayre
Robert Fitz-
to the kings
his Castle of Baynarde and other Castles.
This Robert deceased in the yeare 1234. and was buried at
Dunmow, and VValter his sonne that succeeded him 1258.
his Barony of Baynarde, was in the
warde of king Henry in
the nonage of Robert Fitzwater. This Robert tooke to his
second wife Alienor, daughter to the Earle of Ferrars, in the

Towers and Castels.
yeare, 1289. And in the yeare 1303. before Iohn Blund
Richarde Fitz-
an of London,
and banner
of London, hee acknowledged his seruice to the same Citie for
his Castle Baynarde, hee deceased in the yere 1305. and leauing
issue Walter FitzRobert, who had issue Robert Fitzwater who
deceased in the yere 1325. vnto whom succeeded Robert Fitz Ro-
bert Fitzwater
, &c. More of the Lord Fitzwaters may ye read in
my summary and Annales in the 51. of Edward the 3.. But now
how this honor of Baynardes Castle with the appurtenances fell
from the possession of the Lords Fitzwaters, I haue not read, onely
I finde that Humphrey Duke of Glocester, builded it of new,
by whose death in the yeare of Christ, 1446. it came to the hands
of king Henry the sixt, and from him to Richarde Duke of
, of whome we reade, that in the yeare 1457 hee lodged
there, as in his own house: and true it is, that his sonne king Ed-
the fourth
being dead, and leauing his eldest sonne Edward
and his second sonne Richarde, both infantes: there Richarde
Duke of Glocester
, then Protector, practised for the Crowne, and
as it were by election of the Commons, made in the Guild hall of
London, tooke vpon him there the title of the Realme, as offered
and imposed vpon him: as yee may reade set downe and penned,
by Sir Thomas Moore. King Henry the 7. aboute the yeare
1501. the 3. of his raigne,8 repayred or rather new builded this
house not so imbattelled, or so strongly fortified castlelike, but far
more beutifull and commodious, for the entertainment of any
Prince or greate estate. In the 7. of his raigne hee with his
Queene were lodged there, and came from thence to Paules,
where they made their offering: dined in the Bishops Palace,
and so returned. The eighttenth of his raigne hee was lodged
there and the Ambassadors from the king of Romaines were thi-
ther bronght.10 to his presence, and from thence the King came to
Pawles and was ther sworne vnto the king of Romaines, as the
king had sworne vnto him. This Castle now belongeth to the
Earle of Pembrooke. The next Tower, or Castle bankyng
also on the Riuer of Thames, was, as is afore shewed, called
Mountfiquites Castle, of a noble man, Baron of Mountfitchet
the first builder thereof who came in with VVilliam the Con-
and was surnamed Le Sir Mountfiquit. This Castle hee

Towers and Castels.
builded in a place not far distant from Baynardes, towardes the
West. The same William Mountfiquit liued in the Raigne of
Henry the 1
. and was witnes to a Charter, then granted to the
citie for the Shiriffes of London. Richard Montfiquit liued in
king Iohns time: and in the yere 1213. was by the same king ba-
nished the Realme into France, when peraduenture king Iohn
caused his Castle of Montfiquit, amongst other Castles of the
Barons to bee ouerthrowne : the which after his returne ,
might be by him againe reedified, for the totall destruction thereof
was aboute the yeare 1276. when Robert Kiliwarble, Arch-
bishop of Canterbury beganne the foundation of the house of the
Friars Preachers church there, commonly called the Black Friers
as appeareth by a Charter, the 10. of Iune, the 4, of Edwarde
the 1
. remayning of Recorde in the Tower, wherein is declared
that Gregory de Rocksley Maior of London, and the Barons
Barons of
of the same Citie granted, and gaue vnto the saide Archbishoppe
Robert two lanes or waies next the streete of Baynardes castle
and the Tower of Montfiquit, to be applied for the enlargement
of the saide Church and place.
A third Tower there was also situate on the riuer of Thames
Tower in the
neare vnto the saide Blacke Friers Church, on the west parte
thereof, builded at the Citizens charges, but by licence and com-
mandement of Edwarde the 1. and of Edwarde the 2. as appea-
reth by their grantes : which Tower was then finished and so
stoode for the space of 300. yeares, and was at the last taken
downe by the commandement of Iohn Sha Maior of London
in the yeare 1502.
An other Tower or Castle
Tower or
Castle on the
west⎮of Lon-
by S. Brides
also was there in the west parte
of the Citie, perteyning to the king: For I reade that in the yere
1087. the 20. of VVilliam the firſt 11, the Citie of London with
the Church of S. Paule. being burned, Mauritius then Bishop
of London afterwarde began the foundation of a new Church,
whereunto king VVilliam (saith mine Author) gaue the choice
stones of this Castle standing neare to the banke of the riuer of
Thames, at the west ende of the Citie. After this Mauritius, Ri-
his successor, purchased the
This text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on guesswork. (SM)V12 ita Arkenwald
streetes aboue Paules church
compassing the same with a wall of stone, and gates. King Hen-

Towers and Castels.
ry the first gaue to this Richarde so much of the Moate (or wall)
of the Castle, on the Thames side to the south, as shoulde be néed-
full to make the said wall of the Churchyarde, and so much more as
should suffice to make a way without the wal on the North side &c.
This Tower (or Castle) thus destroyed stoode as it may seeme,
in place where now standeth the house called Bridewel. For not-
withstanding the destruction of the saide Castle or Tower, the
house remayned large, so that the kings of this Realme long after
were lodged there, and kept their Courtes: for in the 9. yeare of
Henry the thirde
the Courte of law and iustice, were kept in the
kinges house,
The kinges
house by S.
wheresoeuer he was lodged, and not else where .
And that the kings haue beene lodged and kept their Law courtes
in this place, I could shew you many authorities of Recorde, but
for plaine proofe this one may suffice. Hæc est finalis concordia,
faƈta in Curia Domini regis apud Sanƈt. Brigid. London a die
Sanƈti Michelis in 15. dies, Anno regni regis Iohannis 7. co-
rā G. Fil. Petri. Eustacio de Faucōberg, Iohanne de Gestlinge
Osbart filio Heruey, VValter, de Crisping, Iusticiar. & aliis
Baronibus Domini regis
. More (as Mathew Paris
Mathew Paris
manuscriptThis text has been supplied. Reason: The text is not clear for some reason not covered by other values of @reason. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (SM)a13
. Parliament at
S. Brides.
hath) about
the yeare 1210. king Iohn in the 12. of his raigne summoned a
Parliament at S. Brides in London, where hee exacted of the
Clergie and religious persons the summe of 100000. poundes, &
besides all this, the white Monkes were compelled to cancell their
Priuiledges, and to pay 40000. poundes to the king, &c. This
house of S. Brides of latter time being left, and not vsed by the
kinges: fell to ruine, insomuch that the verie platforme thereof
remayned for greate parte wast, and as it were, but a laystall of
filth and rubbish: onely a fayre well remained there: a greate part
whereof, namely on the west, (as hath beene said) was giuen to
the Bishop of Salisbnry 14, the other parte towardes the East re-
mayning wast, vntill that king Henry the 8. builded a stately and
beutifull house thereupon, giuing it to name Bridewell,
builded by
Henry the 8.
of the
parish and well there: this house he purposely builded for the en-
tertainement of the Emperor Charles the 5. who in the yeare,
1522. came into this Citie, as I haue shewed in my summary
annales, and large chronicles.
On the northwest side of this Citie, neare vnto Redcrosse

Towers and Castels.
streete there was a Tower commonlie called Barbican, or Burh
, for that the same being placed on a high ground, and also
builded of some good height, was in the olde time vsed as a Watch
, for the Citie, from whence a man might behold and view
the whole Citie towards the South, as also sée into Kent, Sussex,
and Surrey, and likewise euery other way east, north, or west.
Some other Burhkennings or (Watch Towers) there were
of olde time in and aboute the citie, all which were repayred, yea
and others new builded, by Gilbart de Clare earle of Glocester,
in the raigne of king Henry the third, when the Barons were in
Armes, and held the citie against the kThis text has been supplied. Reason: Omitted from the original text due to a printing or typesetting error. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (SM)i15ng: but the Barons being
reconciled to his fauour in the yeare 1267. hee caused all their
Burhkenninges, watch towers, and Bulwarkes made and re-
pared by the said Earle, to be plucked downe, and the ditches to
be filled vp:so that nought of them might be séene to remaine: and
then was this Burhkenning amongst the rest ouerthrowne and
destroyed: and although the ditch neare thereunto, called Hounds
was stopped vp, yet the streete of long time after was called
Houndes ditch, and of late time more commonly called Barbican.
The plot or seate of this Burhkenning or watch tower, king Ed-
the thirde
in the yeare 1336. and the 10. of his raigne
gaue vnto Robert Efforde Earle of Suffolke, by the name of his
Mannor of Base courte, in the parish of S. Giles without Cripple
of London, commonly called the Barbican.
Tower Royall was of old time the kinges house, but sithence
called the Queenes Wardrobe: the Princesse, mother to King
Richard the 2
. in the 4. of his raigne
was lodged there being for-
ced to flie from the tower of London, when the Rebels possessed
it: But on the 15. of Iune (saith Frosarde) VVat Tylar being
slaine, the king went to this Lady Princesse his mother, then lod-
ged in the Tower Royall, called the Queenes Wardrobe, where
she had tarried 2. dayes and 2. nightes: which Tower (sayeth the
Recorde of Edwarde the 3. the 36. yeare) was in the Parish of
S. Michaell de Pater noster
, &c.
Liber S. in en-
The king of
Ermony came
into England.
In the yeare 1386. king
with Queene Anne his wife, kept their Christmas
at Eltham, whether came to him Lion king of Ermony vnder
pretence to reforme Peace, betwixt thekinges of Englande and

Of Schooles and houses of Learning.
France, but what his comming profited he onely vnderstoode: for
besides innumerable giftes, that he receiued of the king, and of the
Nobles, the king lying then in this Royall at the Queenes War-
Richarde the
. lodged in
the Tower
in London, granted to him a Charter of a thousand pounds
by yeare, during his life. Hee was (as hee affirmed) chased out
of his kingdome by the Tartarians. The rest concerning this
Tower shall you reade when you come to the Vintry warde
in which it standeth.


  1. Scan cut off; context obvious. (SM)
  2. I.e. haue. (SM)
  3. I.e. ouerseer.
  4. I.e. brought. (SM)
  5. I.e. ingrossed. (SM)
  6. In the 1598 text, Stow does not specify a year. In the 1603 text, Stow removes the phrase the year of. (KL)
  7. Unclear. (SM)
  8. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here; 1501 is the 16th/17th year of Henry VII’s reign. Given the context, it is likely that the 3rd year of Henry VII’s reign (1487-1488) is the correct date. (SM)
  9. I.e. King Henry the seventh. (SM)
  10. I.e. brought. (SM)
  11. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here; 1087 was in the 21st and final year of William I’s reign. (SM)
  12. Unclear. (SM)
  13. Unclear; context obvious. (SM)
  14. I.e. Salisbury. (SM)
  15. Letter missing; context obvious. (SM)


Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London: Towers and Castles. The Map of Early Modern London, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 26 Jun. 2020,

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London: Towers and Castles. The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 26, 2020.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz-Stephen, W. 2020. Survey of London: Towers and Castles. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London. Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from

RIS file (for RefMan, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz-Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London: Towers and Castles
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
PY  - 2020
DA  - 2020/06/26
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 


RT Web Page
SR Electronic(1)
A1 Stow, John
A1 fitz-Stephen, William
A6 Jenstad, Janelle
T1 Survey of London: Towers and Castles
T2 The Map of Early Modern London
WP 2020
FD 2020/06/26
RD 2020/06/26
PP Victoria
PB University of Victoria
LA English
OL English

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#STOW6"><surname>Stow</surname>, <forename>John</forename></name></author>, and <author><name ref="#FITZ1"><forename>William</forename> <surname>fitz-Stephen</surname></name></author>. <title level="a">Survey of London: Towers and Castles</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2020-06-26">26 Jun. 2020</date>, <ref target=""></ref>.</bibl>