Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward

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CAndlewicke street, or Candlewright streete
, beginneth at the East end of great East-
it passeth west through Eastcheape to
Candlewright streete, and through the same
downe to the North end of Suffolke lane, on
the south side, and downe that lane by the west
ende of S. Laurence churchyarde, and that is
the farthest west part of that Warde. The street of great East-
is so called of the market there kept, in the East parte of
the city, as West cheape is a market so called of being in the west.
This East cheape is now a flesh market of Butchers there
dwelling, on both sides of the street, it had sometime also Cookes
mixed amongst the Butchers, and such other as sold victuails rea-
die dressed of all sorts. For of old time when friends did meet, and
were disposed to bee merie, they went not to dine and suppe in Ta-
uernes, for they dressed not meates to be sold, but the cookes, where
they called for meate what them liked, which they alwayes found
readie dressed at a reasonable rate, as I haue before shewed. In
the yeare 1410. the 11. of Henry the 4. vpon the euen of S. Iohn
, the kinges sonnes,
The kings
sons beaten in
there was no
tauerne then
in Eastcheape.
Thomas, and Iohn being in East-
at supper, (or rather at breakfast, for it was betwixt 2. and
3. of the clocke after midnight) a great debate happened between
their men and other of the court, which lasted one houre, euen till
the Mayor and Sheriffes with other cittizens appeased the same:
for the which afterwards the said Mayor Aldermen and Sheriffes
were sent for to answere before the king, his sonnes and diuers
Lords, being highly moued against the cittie. At which time
William Gascoyne, chiefe Iustice required the Mayor and Al-
dermen, for the citizens, to put them in the Kings grace: whereun-
to they answered that they had not offended, but (according to the
law) had done their best in stinting debate, and maintayning of
the peace: vpon which answere the king remitted all his ire, and
dismissed them. And to proue this Eastcheape, to be a place reple-
nished with cookes, it may appeare by a song called London

licke pennie, made by Lidgate the Monke of Berrye, in the
raigne of Henry the fift, in the person of a cuntreyman comming
to London, and trauelling through the same: In westcheape
In west cheap
linnen cloth
sold but no
silkes spoken
the song) he was called on to buy fine lawne, Paris thread, cotton
Umple, and other linnen clothes and such like (he speaketh of no
silkes) In Cornehill to buy olde apparel, and houshold stuffe, where
he was forced to buy his owne hoode, which hee had lost in West-
minster hall
: in Candlewright street Drapers profered
vpon Corne-
, sellers of
old apparel &
houshold stuff
him cheap
cloth, in Eastcheape the cookes cryed hotte ribbes of beefe rosted,
pyes well baked, and other victuailes: there was clattering of
pots, harpe, pipe, and sawtry, yea by cocke, nay by cocke, for other
greater oathes were spared: some sang of Ienken and Iulian &c.
all which melodie liked well the passenger, but he wanted money
to abide by it, and therefore gat him into Grauesend barge
or Candle-
wike street
wike is a wir-
king place.
home into Kent. Candlewright or Candlewicke street tooke
that name (as may be supposed) eyther of Chaundlers or makers of
candles, both of waxe and tallow: for Candlewright is a maker of
candles, or of Wéeke which is the cotton or yearne thereof: or o-
therwise Wike, which is the place where they vse to work them,
as Scalding wike by the stockes market was called of the Powl-
ters scalding and dressing their powltry there: and in diuers coun-
tries, Dayrie houses or cottages, wherein they make butter and
cheese, are vsually called Wickes. There dwelled
Weauers in
also of olde
time diuers Weauers of woollen clothes, brought in by Edward
the third
. For I reade that in the 44. of his raigne the
brought out
of Flanders
and Brabant.
brought out of Flaunders, were appointed their meetings to be in
the churchyarde of S. Laurence Poultney, and the Weauers of
Brabant in the churchyard of S. Mary Sommerset. There were
then in this cittie weauers of diuers sortes. to wit, of Drapery, of
Tapery, & Naperie. These weauers of Candlewright stréet be-
ing in short time worne out, their place is now possessed by rich
Drapers sellers of woollen cloth, &c. On the North side of this
warde, at the west end of East cheape haue ye S. Clements lane,
a part whereof on both sides is of Candlewike stréet ward, to wit
somewhat North beyond the parish church of S. Clement in East
. This is a small church, void of monuments, other then of
Frauncis Barnam Alderman, who deceased 1575. and of Bene-

dick Barnam his son, Alderman also 1598. Next is S. Nicholas
for the most part on both sides of this ward, almost to S. Ni-
. Then is Abchurch lane, which is on both the sides,
almost wholly of this ward, The special character yͤ (LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH LATIN SMALL LETTER E ABOVE) does not display on all browsers and has been replaced by its simplified parish church there (called of S. Ma-
, Apechurch, or Upchurch, as I haue read it) standeth
somewhat neere vnto the south ende thereof, on a rising ground:
it is a faire church, and hath the monuments of Iohn Long Es-
quire of Bedfordshire 1442. Iohn Wikenson Alderman 1519.
William Iawdrell Taylor, 1440. Sir Iames Hawse Mayor,
1574. Sir Iohn Branch Mayor, 1580. Iohn Miners, Willi-
am Kettle
&c. On the South side of this warde, beginning againe
at the East, is S. Nicholas lane which lane, is almost wholly of
this ward, on both sides downe towards Thamestréete, to a wel
or pump there, On the East side of this lane is crooked lane afore-
said by S. Michæls church, towards new fishstréet. One the most
ancient house in this lane is called the leaden porch, and belonged
somtime to Sir Iohn Merston knight: the 1. of Edward the 4.
The parish church of this S. Michæls was somtime but a smal &
homely thing, standing vpon part of that ground, wherein now
standeth the parsonage house: and the ground there about was a
filthy plot, by reason of the butchers in East chepe, who made the
same their Laystall. Iohn Loueken stockfishmonger Maior buil-
ded in the same ground this faire church of S. Michæll and was
there buried in the quire, vnder a faire tombe with the Images of
him, and his wife in Alabaster: the said church hath béen since in-
creased with a new quire and side chaples by Sir William Wal-
stockfishmonger Mayor, somtime seruant to the foresaid
Iohn Loueken, also the tombe of Loueken was remoued and a
flat stone of grey marble garnished with plates of copper layde on
him as it yet remaineth in the body of the church: this William
is reported to haue slaine Iack Straw in Smithfield,
and there to haue béen therefore knighted by the king, but that is
not trew,
Praise of Wil-
iam Wal-
for his
manhood in
aresting of
Wat Tylar.
for Iack Strawe being afterward taken, was first ad-
iudged by the said mayor, and then executed by the losse of his head
in Smithfield, howbeit true it is that this William Walworth be-
ing a man wise, learned, and of an incomparable manhood arrested
Watt Tiler a presumptuous rebell, vpon whom no man durst lay

whereby hee deliuered the King and kingdome from most wicked
tiranie of Traitors. The Mayor
The Mayor
was well ar-
med, and had
on his head a
arrested him on the head with a
sound blow, whereupon Wat Tylar furiously stroke the Mayor
with his dagger, but hurt him not, by reason he was well armed:
the Mayor hauing receyued his stroke, drew his basiliarde, and
grieuously wounded Wat in the neck, and withal gaue him a great
blow on the head: in the which conflict an Esquire of the kinges
house, called Iohn Cauendish drew his sword, and wounded Wat
twise or thrise euen to the death: and Wat spurring his horse, cried
to the commons to reuenge him: the horse bare him about 80. foot
from the place, and there he fell downe halfe dead, and by and by
they which attended on the king enuironed him about, so as hee
was not seene of his company: many of them thrust him in in di-
uers places of his bodie, and drew him into the Hospitall of S. Bar-
, from whence againe the Mayor caused him to bee
drawne into Smithfield, and there to be beheaded. In rewarde of
this seruice, (the people being dispersed) the king commanded the
Mayor to put a Basenet on his head, and the Mayor requesting
why he should so do, the king answered, he being much bound vn-
to him would make him knight: the Mayor
Mayor made
knight and
otherwise re-
answered, that hee
was neither worthy nor able to take such estate vpon him, for hee
was but a Marchant & had to liue by his marchandise
Order of ma-
king a knight
for seruice in
the field.
onely: not-
withstanding the king made him to put on his Basenet, and then
with a sword in both his hands he strongly strake him on the neck
as the manner was then, and the same day hee made thrée other
citizens knights, for his sake in the same place:
Colledge soū-
to wit, Iohn Phil-
, Nicholas Brembar, and Robert Launde Alderman. The
king gaue to the Mayor 100.£. land by yere, & to each of the other
40.£. land yearely, to them and their heires for euer.
After this in the same yeare the said Sir William Walworth
founded in the said parish church of S. Michæl, a Colledge of a
maister and 9. priestes or Chaplens, & deceased 1385. was
Monument of
Sir W. Wal-
and since fal-
sified, and so
buried in the Chappell by the Quire: but his monument being a-
mongst other by bad people defaced, in the raigne of Edward the 6.
& againe since renued by the Fishmongers, who for lacke of know-
ledge, what before had beene written in his Epitaph, followed a
fabulous booke, and wrote Iacke Straw in steed of Wat Tylar, &
therefore haue I the more at large discoursed of this matter.

It hath also beene and is nowe growne to a common opinion,
that in reward of this seruice done, by the said William Walworth
against the rebell. King Richard added to the armes of this Cit-
tie (which was argent, a plaine crosse Gulas) a sword or dagger,
(for so they terme it) whereof I haue read no such record, but ra-
ther that which soundeth to the contrary:
For I finde that in the
fourth yeare of Richard the ſecond in a full assembly made in the
vpper chamber of the Guildhall, summoned by this VVilliam
, then Mayor, as well of Aldermen as of the common
counsaile in euery ward,
Old seale of
the Mayoralty
broken, and a
new seale
for certaine affaires concerning the king,
it was there by common consent agreed and ordayned, that the old
seale of the office of the Maioraltie of the citie being very smal, old,
vnapt, & vncomely, for the honor of the city, should be broken, & one
other new should be had, which the said
The armes of
this cittie were
not altered,
but remaine
as afore.
Mayor commanded to be
made artificially, & honorable for the exercise of the said office ther-
after in place of the other: in which new seale, besides the images
of Peter, and Paule, which of olde were rudely engrauen, there
should be vnder the feet of the said images, a shield of the armes of
the said cittie perfectly graued, with two Lyons supporting the
same with two sergeants of arms, an other parte, one & two taber-
nacles, in which aboue should stand two angels, between whom
aboue the said images of Peter and Paule shall be set the glorious
Uirgine: this being done, the old seale of the Office was deliuered
to Richard Odiham Chamberlaine, who brake it, and in place
thereof, was deliuered the new seale to the said Mayor to vse in his
office, of maioraltie, as occasion should require. This new seale see-
meth to be made before W. Walworth was knighted, for he is not
here intituled Sir, as afterwardes he was: and certaine it is that
the same new seale then made, is now in vse and none other in that
office of the Maioraltie: which may suffice to answere the former
fable, without shewing of any euidence sealed with the olde seale,
which was the crosse and sword as now &c.
Now the other monuments in that church Simon Mordon May-
or, 1368. was buried there, Iohn Olney Mayor 1446. Robert
Stockfishmonger gaue two péeces of grounde to bee a
churchyarde: Iohn Radwell Stockefishmonger, buried 1415.
George Gowre Esquire, son to Edward Gowre Stockfishmon-
ger Esquire, 1470. Alexander Purpoint Stockfishmonger,

1373. Andrew Burel Gentleman of Greyes Inne, 1487. Iohn
Stockfishmonger 1487. with this Epitaph.
Farewell my friendes the tide abydeth no man
I am departed hence, and so shall ye.
But in this passage the best song that I can
Is requiem eternam, now Iesu grant it me,
VVhen I haue ended all mine aduersitie,
Grant me in Paradise to haue a mansion,
That shedst the blood for my redemption.
Iohn Fenkell one of the Sheriffes, 1487. was knighted, and
gaue 40.£. to this church, the one halfe for his monument. Iohn
Mayor, 1441. Thomas Ewen Grocer, bare halfe the
charges in building of the stéeple, & was buried, 1501. William
Gent. of Stoke by Gilford in Surrey 1502. Sir Iohn
Mayor, 1530. gaue 50.£. for a house called the Colledge
in Crooked lane, he lyeth buried in S. Nicholas Hacon. Walter
, Robert Barre, Alexander Heyband, Iohn Motte,
Iohn Gramstone, Iohn Brampton, Iohn Wood
ger, 1531. Sir Henry Amcots Mayor, 1548. &c. Harde by this
S. Michæls church, on the south side thereof, in the yeare 1560.
on the 5. of Iuly
through the shooting of a gun, which brake in the
Houses in
Crooked lane
blowne vp
with gunpow-
of one Adrian Arten. a dutch man & set fire on a firkin and
barrell of gunpowder, foure houses were blowen vp, and diuers o-
ther sore shattered: 11. men and women were slaine, and 16. so
hurt and brused, that they hardly escaped with life.
West from this S. Michæls lane is S. Martins Orgar lane,
S. Martins Or-
, and
parish church.
Candlewick stréet, which lane is on both sides downe to a well re-
plenished with faire and large houses for marchants, & it is of this
ward: one of which houses was sometime called Beachamps Inne
as pertaining vnto thē of that familie. Thomas Arundell Arch-
bishop of Canterburie, commonly for his time was lodged there.
The parish church of S. Martin Orgor is a smal thing. William
Mayor, builded a proper chappel on the south side ther-
of, and was buried there 1533. Iohn Mathew Mayor 1490. Sir
William Huet
Mayor, 1559. With his Ladie and daughter, wife
to Sir Edward Osborne, Raph Tabinham Alderman, Alice
wife to Thomas Winslow, Thorudon, Benedicke Reding,
Thomas Harding, Iames Smith, Richard Gainford

VVinslow Gent. Iohn Bold &c. Then is there one other lane
called S. Laurence, of the parish church there. This lane down to
the south side of the churchyard, is of Candlewicke streete warde.
The parish church of S. Laurence
Parish church
of S. Laurence
made a Col-
was increased with a chappell
of Iesus by Thomas Cole, for a maister and Chaplens, the which
chappell and parish church was made a Colledge of Iesus, and of
Corpus Christi, for a maister and seuen chaplens, by Iohn Poult-
mayor, and was confirmed by Edward the third, the 20. of his
, of him was this church called S. Laurence Poultney in
Candlewickestréet, which Colledge was valued at 79.l.17. SMALL LATIN LETTER S WITH TILDE ABOVE; ABBREVIATION FOR SHILLINGs.xj.ď
and was surrendred in the raigne of Edward the ſixt. Robert Rat-
Earle of Sussex, & Henry Ratcliffe Earle of Sussex, were
buried there. Alderman Beswicke was buried there, Iohn Olyfe
Alderman, Robert Browne & others. Thus much for this ward,
& the antiquities thereof. It hath now an Alderman his Deputie,
Common Counsellors 8 Constables 8. Scauengers 6. Warde-
mote inquest men 12. and a Beadle. It is taxed to the fifteene at


  1. There is no St. Clement in Westcheap. It is likely that Stow meant to write Eastcheap, like he does in the main text. (KL)

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MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward. The Map of Early Modern London, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 26 Jun. 2020,

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward. The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 26, 2020.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz-Stephen, W. 2020. Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London. Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from

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Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz-Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
PY  - 2020
DA  - 2020/06/26
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 


RT Web Page
SR Electronic(1)
A1 Stow, John
A1 fitz-Stephen, William
A6 Jenstad, Janelle
T1 Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward
T2 The Map of Early Modern London
WP 2020
FD 2020/06/26
RD 2020/06/26
PP Victoria
PB University of Victoria
LA English
OL English

TEI citation

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